Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Bio-fuel

10 Estimating Marine Tidal Power Potential in Kenya

Authors: Lucy Patricia Onundo, Wilfred Njoroge Mwema

Abstract:

The rapidly diminishing fossil fuel reserves, their exorbitant cost and the increasingly apparent negative effect of fossil fuels to climate changes is a wake-up call to explore renewable energy. Wind, bio-fuel and solar power have already become staples of Kenyan electricity mix. The potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents is enormous, with oceans covering more than 70% of the earth. However, attempts to harness marine tidal energy in Kenya, has yet to be studied thoroughly due to its promising, cyclic, reliable and predictable nature and the vast energy contained within it. The high load factors resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make marine currents particularly attractive for power generation and advantageous when compared to others. Global-level resource assessments and oceanographic literature and data have been compiled in an analysis of the technology-specific requirements for tidal energy technologies and the physical resources. Temporal variations in resource intensity as well as the differences between small-scale applications are considered.

Keywords: Energy data assessment, environmental legislation, renewable energy, tidal-in-stream turbines.

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9 Optimal Design of a PV/Diesel Hybrid System for Decentralized Areas through Economic Criteria

Authors: D. Tsuanyo, D. Aussel, Y. Azoumah, P. Neveu

Abstract:

An innovative concept called “Flexy-Energy” is developing at 2iE. This concept aims to produce electricity at lower cost by smartly mix different available energy sources in accordance to the load profile of the region. With a higher solar irradiation and due to the fact that Diesel generator are massively used in sub-Saharan rural areas, PV/Diesel hybrid systems could be a good application of this concept and a good solution to electrify this region, provided they are reliable, cost effective and economically attractive to investors. Presentation of the developed approach is the aims of this paper. The PV/Diesel hybrid system designed consists to produce electricity and/or heat from a coupling between Diesel Diesel generators and PV panels without batteries storage, while ensuring the substitution of gasoil by bio-fuels available in the area where the system will be installed. The optimal design of this system is based on his technical performances; the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Levelized Cost of Energy are developed and use as economic criteria. The Net Present Value (NPV), the internal rate of return (IRR) and the discounted payback (DPB) are also evaluated according to dual electricity pricing (in sunny and unsunny hours). The PV/Diesel hybrid system obtained is compared to the standalone Diesel Diesel generators. The approach carried out in this paper has been applied to Siby village in Mali (Latitude 12 ° 23'N 8 ° 20'W) with 295 kWh as daily demand.This approach provides optimal physical characteristics (size of the components, number of component) and dynamical characteristics in real time (number of Diesel generator on, their load rate, fuel specific consumptions, and PV penetration rate) of the system. The system obtained is slightly cost effective; but could be improved with optimized tariffing strategies.

Keywords: Investments criteria, Optimization, PV hybrid, Sizing, Rural electrification.

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8 Modeling and Simulation of Utility Interfaced PV/Hydro Hybrid Electric Power System

Authors: P. V. V. Rama Rao, B. Kali Prasanna, Y. T. R. Palleswari

Abstract:

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and bio-fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. Each of these sources has unique characteristics which influence how and where they are used. This paper presents the modeling the simulation of solar and hydro hybrid energy sources in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. It simulates all quantities of Hybrid Electrical Power system (HEPS) such as AC output current of the inverter that injected to the load/grid, load current, grid current. It also simulates power output from PV and Hydraulic Turbine Generator (HTG), power delivered to or from grid and finally power factor of the inverter for PV, HTG and grid. The proposed circuit uses instantaneous p-q (real-imaginary) power theory.

Keywords: Photovoltaic Array, Hydraulic Turbine Generator, Electrical Utility (EU), Hybrid Electrical Power Supply.

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7 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng

Abstract:

Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.

Keywords: Biomass, Fructose, Gasification, Supercritical water.

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6 Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Furfural at the Liquid-Solid Interface

Authors: Sanwu Wang, Hongli Dang, Wenhua Xue, Darwin Shields, Xin Liu, Friederike C. Jentoft, Daniel E. Resasco

Abstract:

The bonding configuration and the heat of adsorption of a furfural molecule on the Pd(111) surface were determined by ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. The dynamics of pure liquid water, the liquid-solid interface formed by liquid water and the Pd(111) surface, as well as furfural at the water-Pd interface, were investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures. Calculations and simulations suggest that the bonding configurations at the water-Pd interface promote decarbonylation of furfural.

Keywords: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, bio-fuels, density functional theory, liquid-solid interfaces.

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5 Performance and Emission Study of Linseed Oilas a Fuel for CI Engine

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar Rai, Naveen Kumar, Bhupendra Singh Chauhan

Abstract:

Increased energy demand and the concern about environment friendly technology, renewable bio-fuels are better alternative to petroleum products. In the present study linseed oil was used as alternative source for diesel engine fuel and the results were compared with baseline data of neat diesel. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emissions parameters such as CO, unburned hydro carbon (UBHC), NOx, CO2 and exhaust temperature were compared. BTE of the engine was lower and BSFC was higher when the engine was fueled with Linseed oil compared to diesel fuel. Emission characteristics are better than diesel fuel. NOx formation by using linseed oil during the experiment was lower than diesel fuel. Linseed oil is non edible oil, so it can be used as an extender of diesel fuel energy source for small and medium energy needs.

Keywords: Bio-fuel, exhaust emission, linseed oil, triglyceride.

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4 Biodiesel from Coconut Oil: A Renewable Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Authors: Md A. Hossain, Shabab M. Chowdhury, Yamin Rekhu, Khandakar S. Faraz, Monzur Ul Islam

Abstract:

With the growth of modern civilization and industrialization in worldwide, the demand for energy is increasing day by day. Majority of the world-s energy needs are met through fossil fuels and natural gas. As a result the amount of fossil fuels is on diminishing from year to year. Since the fossil fuel is nonrenewable, so fuel price is gouging as a consequence of spiraling demand and diminishing supply. At present the power generation of our country is mainly depends on imported fossil fuels. To reduce the dependency on imported fuel, the use of renewable sources has become more popular. In Bangladesh coconut is widely growing tree. Especially in the southern part of the country a large area will be found where coconut tree is considered as natural asset. So, our endeavor was to use the coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel. This article shows the prospect of coconut oil as a renewable and alternative fuel of diesel fuel. Since diesel engine has a versatile uses including small electricity generation, an experimental set up is then made to study the performance of a small diesel engine using different blends of bio diesel converted from coconut oil. It is found that bio diesel has slightly different properties than diesel. With biodiesel the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Different blends of bio diesel (i.e. B80, B60, and B 50 etc.) have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine or the fuel supply system. Finally, a comparison of engine performance for different blends of biodiesel has been carried out to determine the optimum blend for different operating conditions.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Bio-fuel, Renewable Energy, Transesterification

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3 Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled with Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)-Diesel Blends

Authors: Velmurugan. A, Loganathan. M

Abstract:

The increased number of automobiles in recent years has resulted in great demand for fossil fuel. This has led to the development of automobile by using alternative fuels which include gaseous fuels, biofuels and vegetables oils as fuel. Energy from biomass and more specific bio-diesel is one of the opportunities that could cover the future demand of fossil fuel shortage. Biomass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a new energy source and abundant source of energy in India. The bio-fuel is derived from cashew nut shell oil and its blend with diesel are promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. In this work the pyrolysis Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)-Diesel Blends (CDB) was used to run the Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. The experiments were conducted with various blends of CNSL and Diesel namely B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100. The results are compared with neat diesel operation. The brake thermal efficiency was decreased for blends of CNSL and Diesel except the lower blends of B20. The brake thermal efficiency of B20 is nearly closer to that of diesel fuel. Also the emission level of the all CNSL and Diesel blends was increased compared to neat diesel. The higher viscosity and lower volatility of CNSL leads to poor mixture formation and hence lower brake thermal efficiency and higher emission levels. The higher emission level can be reduced by adding suitable additives and oxygenates with CNSL and Diesel blends.

Keywords: Bio-oil, Biodiesel, Cardanol, Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)

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2 Assessing the Impact of Contour Strips of Perennial Grass with Bio-fuel Potentials on Aquatic Environment

Authors: Roy R. Gu, Mahesh Sahu

Abstract:

The use of contour strips of perennial vegetation with bio-fuel potential can improve surface water quality by reducing NO3-N and sediment outflow from cropland to surface water-bodies. It also has economic benefits of producing ethanol. In this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to a watershed in Iowa, USA to examine the effectiveness of contour strips of switch grass in reducing the NO3-N outflows from crop fields to rivers or lakes. Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and to examine the effects of strip size on NO3-N reduction under various meteorological conditions, i.e. dry, average and wet years. Useful information was obtained for the evaluation of economic feasibility of growing switch grass for bio-fuel in contour strips. The results can assist in cost-benefit analysis and decisionmaking in best management practices for environmental protection.

Keywords: ethanol, modeling, water quality, NO3-N, watershed.

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1 Hybrid Power – Application for Tourism in Isolated Areas

Authors: Aurelian Octavian Ciucâ, Ioan Bitir-Istrate, Mircea Scripcariu

Abstract:

The rapidly increasing costs of power line extensions and fossil fuel, combined with the desire to reduce carbon dioxide emissions pushed the development of hybrid power system suited for remote locations, the purpose in mind being that of autonomous local power systems. The paper presents the suggested solution for a “high penetration" hybrid power system, it being determined by the location of the settlement and its “zero policy" on carbon dioxide emissions. The paper focuses on the technical solution and the power flow management algorithm of the system, taking into consideration local conditions of development.

Keywords: Renewable energy, hybrid power system, wind turbine, photovoltaic panels, bio-diesel cogeneration, bio-fuel.

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