Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: 5G.

7 Design of a Compact Meshed Antennas for 5G Communication Systems

Authors: Chokri Baccouch, Chayma Bahhar, Hedi Sakli, Nizar Sakli, Taoufik Aguili

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid system solar cell antenna for 5G mobile communications networks. We propose here a solar cell antenna with either a front face collection grid or mesh patch. The solar cell antenna of our contribution combines both optical and radiofrequency signals. Thus, we propose two solar cell antenna structures in the frequency bands of future 5G standard respectively in both 2.6 and 3.5 GHz bands. Simulation using the Advanced Design System (ADS) software allows us to analyze and determine the antenna parameters proposed in this work such as the reflection coefficient (S11), gain, directivity and radiated power.

Keywords: Patch antenna, solar cell, DC, RF, 5G.

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6 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli

Abstract:

Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: Liquefaction, suction caisson foundation, offshore wind turbine, numerical analysis, seismic behavior.

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5 Multi Antenna Systems for 5G Mobile Phones

Authors: Muhammad N. Khan, Syed O. Gillani, Mohsin Jamil, Tarbia Iftikhar

Abstract:

With the increasing demand of bandwidth and data rate, there is a dire need to implement antenna systems in mobile phones which are able to fulfill user requirements. A monopole antenna system with multi-antennas configurations is proposed considering the feasibility and user demand. The multi-antenna structure is referred to as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system. The multi-antenna system comprises of 4 antennas operating below 6 GHz frequency bands for 4G/LTE and 4 antenna for 5G applications at 28 GHz and the dimension of board is 120 × 70 × 0.8mm3. The suggested designs is feasible with a structure of low-profile planar-antenna and is adaptable to smart cell phones and handheld devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first design compared to the literature by having integrated antenna system for two standards, i.e., 4G and 5G. All MIMO antenna systems are simulated on commercially available software, which is high frequency structures simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: High frequency structures simulator (HFSS), mutli-input multi-output (MIMO), monopole antenna, slot antenna.

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4 A Multiple Beam LTE Base Station Antenna with Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Sectorization

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A low wind-load light-weight broad-band multi-beam base station antenna has been developed. It can generate any required number of beams with the required beamwidths. It can have horizontal and vertical sectorization at the same time. Vertical sectorization doubles the overall number of beams. It will be very valuable in LTE-A and 5G. It can be used to serve vertically split inner and outer cells, which improves system performance. The intersection between the beams of the proposed multi-beam antenna can be controlled by optimizing the design parameters of the antenna. The gain at the points of intersection between the beams, the null filling and the overlap between the beams can all be modified. The proposed multi-beam base station antenna can cover an unlimited number of wireless applications, regardless of their frequency bands. It can simultaneously cover all, current and future, wireless technology generations such as 2G, 3G, 4G (LTE), --- etc. For example, in LTE, it covers the bands 450-470 MHz, 690-960 MHz, 1.4-2.7 GHz and 3.3-3.8 GHz. It has at least 2 ports for each band in each beam for ±45° polarizations. It can include up to 72 ports or even more, which could facilitate any further needed capacity expansions.

Keywords: Base station antenna, multi-beam antenna, smart antenna, vertical sectorization.

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3 Modelling Phytoremediation Rates of Aquatic Macrophytes in Aquaculture Effluent

Authors: E. A. Kiridi, A. O. Ogunlela

Abstract:

Pollutants from aquacultural practices constitute environmental problems and phytoremediation could offer cheaper environmentally sustainable alternative since equipment using advanced treatment for fish tank effluent is expensive to import, install, operate and maintain, especially in developing countries. The main objective of this research was, therefore, to develop a mathematical model for phytoremediation by aquatic plants in aquaculture wastewater. Other objectives were to evaluate the retention times on phytoremediation rates using the model and to measure the nutrient level of the aquaculture effluent and phytoremediation rates of three aquatic macrophytes, namely; water hyacinth (Eichornia crassippes), water lettuce (Pistial stratoites) and morning glory (Ipomea asarifolia). A completely randomized experimental design was used in the study. Approximately 100 g of each macrophyte were introduced into the hydroponic units and phytoremediation indices monitored at 8 different intervals from the first to the 28th day. The water quality parameters measured were pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Others were concentration of ammonium–nitrogen (NH4+ -N), nitrite- nitrogen (NO2- -N), nitrate- nitrogen (NO3- -N), phosphate –phosphorus (PO43- -P), and biomass value. The biomass produced by water hyacinth was 438.2 g, 600.7 g, 688.2 g and 725.7 g at four 7–day intervals. The corresponding values for water lettuce were 361.2 g, 498.7 g, 561.2 g and 623.7 g and for morning glory were 417.0 g, 567.0 g, 642.0 g and 679.5g. Coefficient of determination was greater than 80% for EC, TDS, NO2- -N, NO3- -N and 70% for NH4+ -N using any of the macrophytes and the predicted values were within the 95% confidence interval of measured values. Therefore, the model is valuable in the design and operation of phytoremediation systems for aquaculture effluent.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, macrophytes, hydroponic unit, aquaculture effluent, mathematical model.

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2 Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks

Authors: Abdullah A. Al Orainy

Abstract:

Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.

Keywords: Backhaul, Small Cells, Wireless, 5G.

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1 Key Concepts of 5th Generation Mobile Technology

Authors: H. Magri, N. Abghour, M. Ouzzif

Abstract:

The 5th generation of mobile networks is term used in various research papers and projects to identify the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards. 5G wireless networks will support higher peak data rate, lower latency and provide best connections with QoS guarantees. In this article, we discuss various promising technologies for 5G wireless communication systems, such as IPv6 support, World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), BEAM DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (BDMA), Cloud Computing, cognitive radio technology and FBMC/OQAM. This paper is organized as follows: First, we will give introduction to 5G systems, present some goals and requirements of 5G. In the next, basic differences between 4G and 5G are given, after we talk about key technology innovations of 5G systems and finally we will conclude in last Section.

Keywords: WWWW, BDMA, DAWN, 5G, 4G, IPv6, Cloud Computing, cognitive radio, FBMC/OQAM.

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