Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: α-amylase

7 Physical Properties and Resistant Starch Content of Rice Flour Residues Hydrolyzed by α-Amylase

Authors: Waranya Pongpaiboon, Warangkana Srichamnong, Supat Chaiyakul

Abstract:

Enzymatic modification of rice flour can produce highly functional derivatives use in food industries. This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and resistant starch content of rice flour residues hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Rice flour hydrolyzed by α-amylase (60 and 300 u/g) for 1, 24 and 48 hours were investigated. Increasing enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time resulted in decreased rice flour residue’s lightness (L*) but increased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) of rice flour residues. The resistant starch content and peak viscosity increased when hydrolysis time increased. Pasting temperature, trough viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, setback and peak time of the hydrolyzed flours were not significantly different (p>0.05). The morphology of native flour was smooth without observable pores and polygonal with sharp angles and edges. However, after hydrolysis, granules with a slightly rough and porous surface were observed and a rough and porous surface was increased with increasing hydrolyzed time. The X-ray diffraction patterns of native flour showed A-type configuration, which hydrolyzed flour showed almost 0% crystallinity indicated that both amorphous and crystalline structures of starch were simultaneously hydrolyzed by α-amylase.

Keywords: α-Amylase, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Pasting properties, Resistant starch

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6 Ethanol Yield of Three Varieties of Cassava (Odongbo, Ofege, and TMS 30572) Using α-Amylase from Germinated Paddy Rice and Yeast from Palm Wine

Authors: T. A. Abegunde, O. B. Oyewole, T. A. Sanni

Abstract:

A process of conversion of flour from three varieties of cassava, namely Odongbo, ofege and TMS30752 to ethanol using α-amylase locally sourced from germinated unhusked paddy rice and yeast isolated from palm wine was developed. It involves the germination of paddy rice for a period of 15days to produce α-amylase for starch hydrolysis and isolation of yeast from palm wine for fermentation. The results showed that optimum amylase yield of “ofada” rice paddy was at 6th day germination which was 576.9ml/g. Ethanol yield for TMS30572 (440.3%) was significantly higher than “Odongbo” (160.2%) and “Ofege’’ (115.1%), Sugar conversion efficiency were 311.0%v/v, 268.2%v/v and 186.84%v/v for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. The ethanol boiling points were 78oC, 76oC and 80oC for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. This study showed that cassava varieties affects quality of ethanol produced and germination of “ofada” rice for 6 days ensures optimum production of crude amylase enzyme.

Keywords: Cassava, ethanol, fermentation, hydrolysis, α-amylase.

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5 Wheat Bran Carbohydrates as Substrate for Bifidobacterium lactis Development

Authors: V. Radenkovs, D. Klava, K. Juhnevica

Abstract:

The present study addresses problems and solutions related to new functional food production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) bran obtained from industrial mill company “Dobeles dzirnavieks”, was used to investigate them as raw material like nutrients for Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran starch was carried out by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Sigma Aldrich). The Viscozyme L purchased from (Sigma Aldrich) were used for reducing released sugar. Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 purchased from (Probio-Tec® CHR Hansen) was cultivated in enzymatically hydrolysed wheat bran mash. All procedures ensured the number of active Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in the final product reached 105 CFUg-1. After enzymatic and bacterial fermentations sample were freeze dried for analysis of chemical compounds. All experiments were performed at Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture in January- March 2013. The obtained results show that both types of wheat bran (enzymatically treated and non-treated) influenced the fermentative activity and number of Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 viable in wheat bran mash. Amount of acidity strongly increase during the wheat bran mash fermentation. The main objective of this work was to create low-energy functional enzymatically and bacterially treated food from wheat bran using enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and following cultivation of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12.

Keywords: Viscozyme L, α-amylase, Bifidobacterium lactis, fermented wheat bran.

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4 Antidiabetic and Antioxidative Activities of Butyrolactone I from Aspergillus terreus MC751

Authors: Rizna Triana Dewi, Sanro Tachibana, Ahmad Darmawan

Abstract:

The bioassay-guided isolation and purification of an ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus terreus MC751 led to the characterization of butyrolactone I as an antidiabetic and antioxidant. The antidiabetic activity of butyrolactone I was evaluated by α- glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Butyrolactone I demonstrated significant concentration-dependent, mixed-type inhibitory activity against yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 54μM. However, the compound exhibited less activity against rat intestinal α-glucosidase and α-amylase. This is the first report on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of butyrolactone I. The antioxidative activity of butyrolactone I was evaluated based on scavenging effects on 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 =51 μM) and hydrogen peroxide (IC50= 141 μM) radicals as well as a reducing power assay. The results suggest that butyrolactone I is a promising antidiabetic as well as antioxidant and should be considered for clinical trials.

Keywords: Aspergillus terreus MC751, antidiabetic, antioxidant, Butyrolactone I.

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3 Induction of alpha-Amylase in Wheat Grain Cultivars as an Indicator of Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

Authors: Aidar A. Khakimzhanov, Vladimir A. Kuzovlev, Nurgul S. Mamytova, Dinara A. Shansharova, Oleg V. Fursov

Abstract:

The influence of humidity and low temperature on the α- amylase activity and isoenzyme composition of grains of different wheat varieties have been studied. The identified samples of varieties have significant difference in the level of enzyme induction under the impact of high humidity and low temperature. It is proposed to use this methodological approach for testing genotypes and wheat breeding lines for resistance to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS).

Keywords: α-Amylase, isoenzymes, wheat, pre-harvest sprouting.

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2 Optimization of Enzymatic Activities in Malting of Oat

Authors: E. Hosseini, M. Kadivar, M. Shahedi

Abstract:

Malting is usually carried out on intact barley seed, while hull is still attached to it. In this study, oat grain with and without hull was subjected to controlled germination to optimize its enzymes activity, in such a way that lipase has the lowest and α- amylase and proteinase the highest activities. Since pH has a great impact on the activity of the enzymes, the pH of germination media was set up to 3 to 8. In dehulled oats, lipase and α-amylase had the lowest and highest activities in pHs 3 and 6, respectively whereas the highest proteinase activity was evidenced at pH 7 and 4 in the oats with and without hull respectively. While measurements indicated that the effect of hull on the enzyme activities particularly in lipase and amylase at each level of the pH are significantly different, the best results were obtained in those samples in which their hull had been removed. However, since the similar lipase activity in germinated dehulled oat were recorded at the pHs 4 and 5, therefore it was concluded that pH 5 in dehulled oat seed may provide the optimum enzyme activity for all the enzymes.

Keywords: Enzyme activity, malting, oat, optimization.

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1 Statistical Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Starch by Immobilized α-amylase

Authors: N.Peatciyammal, B.Balachandar, M.Dinesh Kumar, K.Tamilarasan, C.Muthukumaran

Abstract:

Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from natural sources finds potential application in commercial production of alcoholic beverage and bioethanol. In this study the effect of starch concentration, temperature, time and enzyme concentration were studied and optimized for hydrolysis of Potato starch powder (of mesh 80/120) into glucose syrup by immobilized (using Sodium arginate) α-amylase using central composite design. The experimental result on enzymatic hydrolysis of Potato starch was subjected to multiple linear regression analysis using MINITAB 14 software. Positive linear effect of starch concentration, enzyme concentration and time was observed on hydrolysis of Potato starch by α-amylase. The statistical significance of the model was validated by F-test for analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.01). The optimum value of starch concentration, enzyme concentration, temperature, time and were found to be 6% (w/v), 2% (w/v), 40°C and 80min respectively. The maximum glucose yield at optimum condition was 2.34 mg/mL.

Keywords: Alcoholic beverage, Central Composite Design, Enzymatic hydrolysis, Glucose yield, Potato Starch.

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