Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: superposition principle

73 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams

Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry

Abstract:

In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.

Keywords: Complex potential, conformal mapping, groundwater remediation, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principle.

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72 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: Fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle.

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71 Levels of Students’ Understandings of Electric Field Due to a Continuous Charged Distribution: A Case Study of a Uniformly Charged Insulating Rod

Authors: Thanida Sujarittham, Narumon Emarat, Jintawat Tanamatayarat, Kwan Arayathanitkul, Suchai Nopparatjamjomras

Abstract:

Electric field is an important fundamental concept in electrostatics. In high-school, generally Thai students have already learned about definition of electric field, electric field due to a point charge, and superposition of electric fields due to multiple-point charges. Those are the prerequisite basic knowledge students holding before entrancing universities. In the first-year university level, students will be quickly revised those basic knowledge and will be then introduced to a more complicated topic—electric field due to continuous charged distributions. We initially found that our freshman students, who were from the Faculty of Science and enrolled in the introductory physic course (SCPY 158), often seriously struggled with the basic physics concepts—superposition of electric fields and inverse square law and mathematics being relevant to this topic. These also then resulted on students’ understanding of advanced topics within the course such as Gauss's law, electric potential difference, and capacitance. Therefore, it is very important to determine students' understanding of electric field due to continuous charged distributions. The open-ended question about sketching net electric field vectors from a uniformly charged insulating rod was administered to 260 freshman science students as pre- and post-tests. All of their responses were analyzed and classified into five levels of understandings. To get deep understanding of each level, 30 students were interviewed toward their individual responses. The pre-test result found was that about 90% of students had incorrect understanding. Even after completing the lectures, there were only 26.5% of them could provide correct responses. Up to 50% had confusions and irrelevant ideas. The result implies that teaching methods in Thai high schools may be problematic. In addition for our benefit, these students’ alternative conceptions identified could be used as a guideline for developing the instructional method currently used in the course especially for teaching electrostatics.

Keywords: Electrostatics Electric field due to continuous charged distributions, inverse square law, superposition principle, levels of student understandings.

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70 Principle Components Updates via Matrix Perturbations

Authors: Aiman Elragig, Hanan Dreiwi, Dung Ly, Idriss Elmabrook

Abstract:

This paper highlights a new approach to look at online principle components analysis (OPCA). Given a data matrix X R,^m x n we characterise the online updates of its covariance as a matrix perturbation problem. Up to the principle components, it turns out that online updates of the batch PCA can be captured by symmetric matrix perturbation of the batch covariance matrix. We have shown that as n→ n0 >> 1, the batch covariance and its update become almost similar. Finally, utilize our new setup of online updates to find a bound on the angle distance of the principle components of X and its update.

Keywords: Online data updates, covariance matrix, online principle component analysis (OPCA), matrix perturbation.

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69 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Under Effect Clamped-Free Boundary Conditions Using Hamilton's Principle

Authors: M.R. Isvandzibaei, M.R. Alinaghizadeh, A.H. Zaman

Abstract:

In the present work, study of the vibration of thin cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is presented. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The analysis is carried out using Hamilton's principle. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clamped-free boundary conditions

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle, clamped supported.

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68 Photon Localization inside a Waveguide Modeled by Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Shilpa N. Kulkarni, Sujata R. Patrikar

Abstract:

In the present work, an attempt is made to understand electromagnetic field confinement in a subwavelength waveguide structure using concepts of quantum mechanics. Evanescent field in the waveguide is looked as inability of the photon to get confined in the waveguide core and uncertainty of position is assigned to it. The momentum uncertainty is calculated from position uncertainty. Schrödinger wave equation for the photon is written by incorporating position-momentum uncertainty. The equation is solved and field distribution in the waveguide is obtained. The field distribution and power confinement is compared with conventional waveguide theory. They were found in good agreement with each other.

Keywords: photon localization in waveguide, photon tunneling, quantum confinement of light, Schrödinger wave equation, uncertainty principle.

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67 Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

Authors: Georgi Yordanov Georgiev, Michael Daly, Erin Gombos, Amrit Vinod, Gajinder Hoonjan

Abstract:

Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements and for all motions. This approach can help describe, quantify, measure, manage, design and predict future behavior of complex systems to achieve the highest rates of self organization to improve their quality. It can be applied to other complex systems from Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Economics, Cities, network theory and others where complex systems are present.

Keywords: Organization, self-organization, complex system, complexification, quantitative measure, principle of least action, principle of stationary action, attractor, progressive development, acceleration, stochastic.

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66 Moving from Rule-based to Principle-based in Public Sector: Preparers' Perspective

Authors: Roshayani Arshad, Normah Omar, Siti Fatimah Awang

Abstract:

The move from cash accounting to accrual accounting, or rule-based to principle-based accounting, by many governments is part of an ongoing efforts in promoting a more business-like and performance-focused public sector. Using questionnaire responses from preparers of financial statements of public universities in Malaysia, this study examines the implementation challenges and benefits of principle-based accounting. Results from these responses suggest that most respondents perceived significant costs would be incurred in relation to staff training and recruitment of staffs with relevant technical knowledge. In addition, most respondents also perceived that there will be significant changes in the current accounting system and structure in order to comply with the principle-based accounting requirements. However, most respondents perceived that these changes might not result in significant benefits for management purposes, for example, financial management, budgeting and allocation of resources. Nevertheless, most respondents perceived that principle-based accounting information would facilitate the monitoring function of the board. The general perception is that adoption of principle-based accounting information is not significantly useful than rule-based accounting information is expected to change over time as preparers of the financial statements gradually understand and appreciate the benefits of principle-based accounting information. This infers that the perceived usefulness of different accounting system is a function of familiarity by the preparers.

Keywords: Accrual accounting, principle-based accounting, public sector, rule-based accounting.

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65 Comparison of Frequency Estimation Methods for Reflected Signals in Mobile Platforms

Authors: Kathrin Reinhold

Abstract:

Precise frequency estimation methods for pulseshaped echoes are a prerequisite to determine the relative velocity between sensor and reflector. Signal frequencies are analysed using three different methods: Fourier Transform, Chirp ZTransform and the MUSIC algorithm. Simulations of echoes are performed varying both the noise level and the number of reflecting points. The superposition of echoes with a random initial phase is found to influence the precision of frequency estimation severely for FFT and MUSIC. The standard deviation of the frequency using FFT is larger than for MUSIC. However, MUSIC is more noise-sensitive. The distorting effect of superpositions is less pronounced in experimental data.

Keywords: Frequency estimation, pulse-echo-method, superposition, echoes.

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64 System Concept for Low Analog Complexity and High-IF Superposition Heterodyne Receivers

Authors: Marko Mailand, Hans-Joachim Jentschel

Abstract:

For today-s and future wireless communications applications, more and more data traffic has to be transmitted with growing speed and quality demands. The analog front-end of any mobile device has to cope with very hard specifications regardless which transmission standard has to be supported. State-of-the-art analog front-end implementations are reaching the limit of technical feasibility. For that reason, alternative front-end architectures could support a continuing development of mobile communications e.g., six-port-based front-ends [1], [2]. In this article we propose an analog front-end with high intermediate frequency and which utilizes additive mixing instead of multiplicative mixing. The system architecture is presented and several spurious effects as well as their influence on the system dimensioning are discussed. Furthermore, several issues concerning the technical feasibility are provided and some simulation results are discussed which show the principle functionality of the proposed superposition heterodyne receiver.

Keywords: receivers, analog front-end, heterodyning, self-mixing.

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63 Molecular Docking on Recomposed versus Crystallographic Structures of Zn-Dependent Enzymes and their Natural Inhibitors

Authors: Tudor Petreuş, Andrei Neamţu, Cristina Dascălu, Paul Dan Sîrbu, Carmen E. Cotrutz

Abstract:

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a class of structural and functional related enzymes involved in altering the natural elements of the extracellular matrix. Most of the MMP structures are cristalographycally determined and published in WorldWide ProteinDataBank, isolated, in full structure or bound to natural or synthetic inhibitors. This study proposes an algorithm to replace missing crystallographic structures in PDB database. We have compared the results of a chosen docking algorithm with a known crystallographic structure in order to validate enzyme sites reconstruction there where crystallographic data are missing.

Keywords: matrix metalloproteinases, molecular docking, structure superposition, surface complementarity.

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62 Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

Authors: Jyoti Chaturvedi Gursaran

Abstract:

Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit, superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper. One of the applications of quantum computing i.e. implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained, complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge toward better solutions.

Keywords: Quantum computing, qubit, superposition, entanglement, measurement of states, evolution of states, Scheduling problem, hard and soft constraints, evolutionary algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm.

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61 Time Temperature Dependence of Long Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Manufactured by Direct Long Fiber Thermoplastic Process

Authors: K. A. Weidenmann, M. Grigo, B. Brylka, P. Elsner, T. Böhlke

Abstract:

In order to reduce fuel consumption, the weight of automobiles has to be reduced. Fiber reinforced polymers offer the potential to reach this aim because of their high stiffness to weight ratio. Additionally, the use of fiber reinforced polymers in automotive applications has to allow for an economic large-scale production. In this regard, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics made by direct processing offer both mechanical performance and processability in injection moulding and compression moulding. The work presented in this contribution deals with long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene directly processed in compression moulding (D-LFT). For the use in automotive applications both the temperature and the time dependency of the materials properties have to be investigated to fulfill performance requirements during crash or the demands of service temperatures ranging from -40 °C to 80 °C. To consider both the influence of temperature and time, quasistatic tensile tests have been carried out at different temperatures. These tests have been complemented by high speed tensile tests at different strain rates. As expected, the increase in strain rate results in an increase of the elastic modulus which correlates to an increase of the stiffness with decreasing service temperature. The results are in good accordance with results determined by dynamic mechanical analysis within the range of 0.1 to 100 Hz. The experimental results from different testing methods were grouped and interpreted by using different time temperature shift approaches. In this regard, Williams-Landel-Ferry and Arrhenius approach based on kinetics have been used. As the theoretical shift factor follows an arctan function, an empirical approach was also taken into consideration. It could be shown that this approach describes best the time and temperature superposition for glass fiber reinforced polypropylene manufactured by D-LFT processing.

Keywords: Composite, long fiber reinforced thermoplastics, mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical analysis, time temperature superposition.

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60 Going beyond Social Maternage.The Principle of Brotherhood in the Community Psychology's Intervention

Authors: Gioacchino Lavanco, Elisabetta Di Giovanni, Floriana Romano

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study in depth some methodological aspects of social interventation, focusing on desirable passage from social maternage method to peer advocacy method. For this purpose, we intend analyze social and organizative components, that affect operator's professional action and that are part of his psychological environment, besides the physical and social one. In fact, operator's interventation should not be limited to a pure supply of techniques, nor to take shape as improvised action, but “full of good purposes".

Keywords: Advocacy, education, relationship, social mandate.

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59 Functional and Efficient Query Interpreters: Principle, Application and Performances’ Comparison

Authors: Laurent Thiry, Michel Hassenforder

Abstract:

This paper presents a general approach to implement efficient queries’ interpreters in a functional programming language. Indeed, most of the standard tools actually available use an imperative and/or object-oriented language for the implementation (e.g. Java for Jena-Fuseki) but other paradigms are possible with, maybe, better performances. To proceed, the paper first explains how to model data structures and queries in a functional point of view. Then, it proposes a general methodology to get performances (i.e. number of computation steps to answer a query) then it explains how to integrate some optimization techniques (short-cut fusion and, more important, data transformations). It then compares the functional server proposed to a standard tool (Fuseki) demonstrating that the first one can be twice to ten times faster to answer queries.

Keywords: Data transformation, functional programming, information server, optimization.

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58 Novel Approach for Wideband VNA by Sixport Principle

Authors: Tomáš Urbanec

Abstract:

Paper presents simple sixport principle and its frequency bandwidth. The novel multisixport approach is presented with its possibilities, typical parameters and frequency bandwidth. Practical implementation is shown with its measurement parameters and calibration. The bandwidth circa 1:100 is obtained.

Keywords: microwave measurement, sixport, VNA, wideband.

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57 The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation: Analysis the Adjudications of Thailand Court

Authors: Paiboon Chuwatthanakij

Abstract:

In reference to the legal state in the Thai legal system, most people understand the minor principles of the legal state form, which are the principles that can be explained and understood easily and the results can be seen clearly, especially in the legitimacy of administrative acts. Therefore, there is no awareness of justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law. The legitimacy of administrative acts requires the administration to adhere to the constitution and legislative laws in enforcement of the laws. If it appears that the administrative acts are illegitimate, the administrative court, as the court of justice, will revoke those acts as if they had never been set in the legal system, this will affect people’s trust as they are unaware as to whether the administrative acts that appoint their lives are legitimate or not. Regarding the revocation of administrative orders by the administrative court as if those orders had never existed, the common individual surely cannot be expected to comprehend the security of their juristic position. Therefore, the legal state does not require a revocation of the government’s acts to terminate its legal results merely because those acts are illegitimate, but there should be considerations and realizations regarding the “The Principle of the Protection of Legitimate Expectation,” which is a minor principle in the legal state’s content that focuses on supporting and protecting legitimate expectations of the juristic position of an individual and maintaining justice, which is the fundamental value of Thai law.

Keywords: Legal state, Rule of law, Protection of legitimate.

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56 A Development of Personalized Edutainment Contents through Storytelling

Authors: Min Kyeong Cha, Ju Yeon Mun, Seong Baeg Kim

Abstract:

Recently, ‘play of learning’ becomes important and is  emphasized as a useful learning tool. Therefore, interest in  edutainment contents is growing. Storytelling is considered first as a  method that improves the transmission of information and learner's  interest when planning edutainment contents. In this study, we  designed edutainment contents in the form of an adventure game that  applies the storytelling method. This content provides questions and  items constituted dynamically and reorganized learning contents  through analysis of test results. It allows learners to solve various  questions through effective iterative learning. As a result, the learners  can reach mastery learning.

 

Keywords: Storytelling, edutainment, mastery learning, computer operating principle.

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55 Shape Restoration of the Left Ventricle

Authors: May-Ling Tan, Yi Su, Chi-Wan Lim, Liang Zhong, Ru-San Tan

Abstract:

This paper describes an automatic algorithm to restore the shape of three-dimensional (3D) left ventricle (LV) models created from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using a geometry-driven optimization approach. Our basic premise is to restore the LV shape such that the LV epicardial surface is smooth after the restoration. A geometrical measure known as the Minimum Principle Curvature (κ2) is used to assess the smoothness of the LV. This measure is used to construct the objective function of a two-step optimization process. The objective of the optimization is to achieve a smooth epicardial shape by iterative in-plane translation of the MRI slices. Quantitatively, this yields a minimum sum in terms of the magnitude of κ 2, when κ2 is negative. A limited memory quasi-Newton algorithm, L-BFGS-B, is used to solve the optimization problem. We tested our algorithm on an in vitro theoretical LV model and 10 in vivo patient-specific models which contain significant motion artifacts. The results show that our method is able to automatically restore the shape of LV models back to smoothness without altering the general shape of the model. The magnitudes of in-plane translations are also consistent with existing registration techniques and experimental findings.

Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Left Ventricle, ShapeRestoration, Principle Curvature, Optimization

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54 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati

Abstract:

Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: All-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential.

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53 Analytical Based Truncation Principle of Higher-Order Solution for a x1/3 Force Nonlinear Oscillator

Authors: Md. Alal Hosen

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified harmonic balance method based an analytical technique has been developed to determine higher-order approximate periodic solutions of a conservative nonlinear oscillator for which the elastic force term is proportional to x1/3. Usually, a set of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved in this method. However, analytical solutions of these algebraic equations are not always possible, especially in the case of a large oscillation. In this article, different parameters of the same nonlinear problems are found, for which the power series produces desired results even for the large oscillation. We find a modified harmonic balance method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. Besides these, a suitable truncation formula is found in which the solution measures better results than existing solutions. The method is mainly illustrated by the x1/3 force nonlinear oscillator but it is also useful for many other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: Approximate solutions, Harmonic balance method, Nonlinear oscillator, Perturbation.

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52 Investigation of the Operational Principle and Flow Analysis of a Newly Developed Dry Separator

Authors: Sung Uk Park, Young Su Kang, Sangmo Kang, Yong Kweon Suh

Abstract:

Mineral product, waste concrete (fine aggregates), waste in the optical field, industry, and construction employ separators to separate solids and classify them according to their size. Various sorting machines are used in the industrial field such as those operating under electrical properties, centrifugal force, wind power, vibration, and magnetic force. Study on separators has been carried out to contribute to the environmental industry. In this study, we perform CFD analysis for understanding the basic mechanism of the separation of waste concrete (fine aggregate) particles from air with a machine built with a rotor with blades. In CFD, we first performed two-dimensional particle tracking for various particle sizes for the model with 1 degree, 1.5 degree, and 2 degree angle between each blade to verify the boundary conditions and the method of rotating domain method to be used in 3D. Then we developed 3D numerical model with ANSYS CFX to calculate the air flow and track the particles. We judged the capability of particle separation for given size by counting the number of particles escaping from the domain toward the exit among 10 particles issued at the inlet. We confirm that particles experience stagnant behavior near the exit of the rotating blades where the centrifugal force acting on the particles is in balance with the air drag force. It was also found that the minimum particle size that can be separated by the machine with the rotor is determined by its capability to stay at the outlet of the rotor channels.

Keywords: Environmental industry, Separator, CFD, Fine aggregate.

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51 A New Weighted LDA Method in Comparison to Some Versions of LDA

Authors: Delaram Jarchi, Reza Boostani

Abstract:

Linear Discrimination Analysis (LDA) is a linear solution for classification of two classes. In this paper, we propose a variant LDA method for multi-class problem which redefines the between class and within class scatter matrices by incorporating a weight function into each of them. The aim is to separate classes as much as possible in a situation that one class is well separated from other classes, incidentally, that class must have a little influence on classification. It has been suggested to alleviate influence of classes that are well separated by adding a weight into between class scatter matrix and within class scatter matrix. To obtain a simple and effective weight function, ordinary LDA between every two classes has been used in order to find Fisher discrimination value and passed it as an input into two weight functions and redefined between class and within class scatter matrices. Experimental results showed that our new LDA method improved classification rate, on glass, iris and wine datasets, in comparison to different versions of LDA.

Keywords: Discriminant vectors, weighted LDA, uncorrelation, principle components, Fisher-face method, Bootstarp method.

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50 Fermat’s Last Theorem a Simple Demonstration

Authors: Jose William Porras Ferreira

Abstract:

This paper presents two solutions to the Fermat’s Last Theorem (FLT). The first one using some algebraic basis related to the Pythagorean theorem, expression of equations, an analysis of their behavior, when compared with power  and power  and using " the “Well Ordering Principle” of natural numbers it is demonstrated that in Fermat equation . The second one solution is using the connection between  and power  through the Pascal’s triangle or  Newton’s binomial coefficients, where de Fermat equation do not fulfill the first coefficient, then it is impossible that:

zn=xn+yn for n>2 and (x, y, z) E Z+ - {0}

 

Keywords: Fermat’s Last Theorem, Pythagorean Theorem, Newton Binomial Coefficients, Pascal’s Triangle, Well Ordering Principle.

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49 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk

Abstract:

In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: Antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution.

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48 Lane Changing and Merging Maneuvers of Carlike Robots

Authors: Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai, Ravindra Rai

Abstract:

This research paper designs a unique motion planner of multiple platoons of nonholonomic car-like robots as a feasible solution to the lane changing/merging maneuvers. The decentralized planner with a leaderless approach and a path-guidance principle derived from the Lyapunov-based control scheme generates collision free avoidance and safe merging maneuvers from multiple lanes to a single lane by deploying a split/merge strategy. The fixed obstacles are the markings and boundaries of the road lanes, while the moving obstacles are the robots themselves. Real and virtual road lane markings and the boundaries of road lanes are incorporated into a workspace to achieve the desired formation and configuration of the robots. Convergence of the robots to goal configurations and the repulsion of the robots from specified obstacles are achieved by suitable attractive and repulsive potential field functions, respectively. The results can be viewed as a significant contribution to the avoidance algorithm of the intelligent vehicle systems (IVS). Computer simulations highlight the effectiveness of the split/merge strategy and the acceleration-based controllers.

Keywords: Lane merging, Lyapunov-based control scheme, path-guidance principle, split/merge strategy.

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47 Investigating Aesthetics According to Gestalt's Theories and Principles of Architectural Design

Authors: D. Moussazadeh, A. Aytug

Abstract:

In this study, aesthetics, which is architecture-dependent, covers the interpretable, debatable, and mathematical features. The purpose of this study is to provide a different perspective on the values of formal aesthetics and to analyze architectural forms to examine the factors that are related to the form of architectural works. In this study, the formal factors of aesthetics have been objectively studied and analyzed.

Keywords: Architecture design, Gestalt, architectural principle, museum.

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46 A Simple Adaptive Algorithm for Norm-Constrained Optimization

Authors: Hyun-Chool Shin

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a simple adaptive algorithm iteratively solving the unit-norm constrained optimization problem. Instead of conventional parameter norm based normalization, the proposed algorithm incorporates scalar normalization which is computationally much simpler. The analysis of stationary point is presented to show that the proposed algorithm indeed solves the constrained optimization problem. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed algorithm performs as good as conventional ones while being computationally simpler.

Keywords: constrained optimization, unit-norm, LMS, principle component analysis.

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45 Stimulus-Dependent Polyrhythms of Central Pattern Generator Hardware

Authors: Le Zhao, Alain Nogaret

Abstract:

We have built universal central pattern generator (CPG) hardware by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with reciprocally inhibitory synapses. We investigate the dynamics of neuron oscillations as a function of the time delay between current steps applied to individual neurons. We demonstrate stimulus dependent switching between spiking polyrhythms and map the phase portraits of the neuron oscillations to reveal the basins of attraction of the system. We experimentally study the dependence of the attraction basins on the network parameters: The neuron response time and the strength of inhibitory connections.

Keywords: Central pattern generator, winnerless competition principle.

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44 Vibration of Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells under Effects Clamped-Clamped Boundary Conditions

Authors: M.R.Alinaghizadehand, M.R.Isvandzibaei

Abstract:

Study of the vibration cylindrical shells made of a functionally gradient material (FGM) composed of stainless steel and nickel is important. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the shell according to volume fraction power law distribution. The objective is to study the natural frequencies, the influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of boundary conditions on the natural frequencies of the FG cylindrical shell. The study is carried out using third order shear deformation shell theory. The governing equations of motion of FG cylindrical shells are derived based on shear deformation theory. Results are presented on the frequency characteristics, influence of constituent volume fractions and the effects of clampedclamped boundary conditions.

Keywords: Vibration, FGM, Cylindrical shell, Hamilton's principle.

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