Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: physicochemical properties

39 Physicochemical Characterization of Medium Alkyd Resins Prepared with a Mixture of Linum usitatissimum L. and Plukenetia volubilis L. Oils

Authors: Antonella Hadzich, Santiago Flores

Abstract:

Alkyds have become essential raw materials in the coating and paint industry, due to their low cost, good application properties and lower environmental impact in comparison with petroleum-based polymers. The properties of these oil-modified materials depend on the type of polyunsaturated vegetable oil used for its manufacturing, since a higher degree of unsaturation provides a better crosslinking of the cured paint. Linum usitatissimum L. (flax) oil is widely used to develop alkyd resins due to its high degree of unsaturation. Although it is intended to find non-traditional sources and increase their commercial value, to authors’ best knowledge a natural source that can replace flaxseed oil has not yet been found. However, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, of Peruvian origin, contains a similar fatty acid polyunsaturated content to the one reported for Linum usitatissimum L. oil. In this perspective, medium alkyd resins were prepared with a mixture of 50% of Linum usitatissimum L. oil and 50% of Plukenetia volubilis L. oil. Pure Linum usitatissimum L. oil was also used for comparison purposes. Three different resins were obtained by varying the amount of glycerol and pentaerythritol. The synthesized alkyd resins were characterized by FT-IR, and physicochemical properties like acid value, colour, viscosity, density and drying time were evaluated by standard methods. The pencil hardness and chemical resistance behaviour of the cured resins were also studied. Overall, it can be concluded that medium alkyd resins containing Plukenetia volubilis L. oil have an equivalent behaviour compared to those prepared purely with Linum usitatissimum L. oil. Both Plukenetia volubilis L. oil and pentaerythritol have a remarkable influence on certain physicochemical properties of medium alkyd resins.

Keywords: alkyd resins, flaxseed oil, pentaerythritol, Plukenetia volubilis L. oil, protective coating

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38 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin

Abstract:

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: Confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity, zeta potential, chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering

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37 Determination of Physicochemical Properties, Bioaccessibility of Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mineral Enriched Linden Herbal Tea Beverage

Authors: Senem Suna, Canan Ece Tamer, Ömer Utku Çopur

Abstract:

In this research, dried linden (Tilia argentea) leaves and blossoms were used as a raw material for mineral enriched herbal tea beverage production. For this aim, %1 dried linden was infused with boiling water (100 °C) for 5 minutes. After cooling, sucrose, citric acid, ascorbic acid, natural lemon flavor and natural mineral water were added. Beverage samples were plate filtered, filled into 200-mL glass bottles, capped then pasteurized at 98 °C for 15 minutes. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH, minerals (Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na), color (L*, a*, b*), turbidity, bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant capacity were analyzed. Water soluble dry matter, titratable acidity, and ascorbic were determined as 7.66±0.28 g/100 g, 0.13±0.00 g/100 mL, and 19.42±0.62 mg/100 mL, respectively. pH was measured as 3.69. Fe, Ca, Mg, K and Na contents of the beverage were determined as 0.12±0.00, 115.48±0.05, 34.72±0.14, 48.67±0.43 and 85.72±1.01 mg/L, respectively. Color was measured as 13.63±0.05, -4.33±0.05, and 3.06±0.05 for L*, a*, and b* values. Turbidity was determined as 0.69±0.07 NTU. Bioaccessible phenolics were determined as 312.82±5.91 mg GAE/100 mL. Antioxidant capacities of chemical (MetOH:H2O:HCl) and physiological extracts (in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction) with DPPH (27.59±0.53 and 0.17±0.02 μmol trolox/mL), FRAP (21.01±0.97 and 13.27±0.19 μmol trolox/mL) and CUPRAC (44.71±9.42 and 2.80±0.64 μmol trolox/mL) methods were also evaluated. As a result, enrichment with natural mineral water was proposed for the development of functional and nutritional values together with a good potential for commercialization.

Keywords: Antioxidant Capacity, bioaccessibility, linden, herbal tea beverage

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36 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour

Abstract:

The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: cement, reuse, Sediment, calcination

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35 Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt

Authors: Mohammad B. HabibiNajafi, Saeideh Sadat Fatemizadeh, Maryam Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, proteolysis, yogurt, ACE-inhibitory

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34 Submicron Laser-Induced Dot, Ripple and Wrinkle Structures and Their Applications

Authors: P. Slepicka, N. Slepickova Kasalkova, I. Michaljanicova, O. Nedela, Z. Kolska, V. Svorcik

Abstract:

Polymers exposed to laser or plasma treatment or modified with different wet methods which enable the introduction of nanoparticles or biologically active species, such as amino-acids, may find many applications both as biocompatible or anti-bacterial materials or on the contrary, can be applied for a decrease in the number of cells on the treated surface which opens application in single cell units. For the experiments, two types of materials were chosen, a representative of non-biodegradable polymers, polyethersulphone (PES) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) as biodegradable material. Exposure of solid substrate to laser well below the ablation threshold can lead to formation of various surface structures. The ripples have a period roughly comparable to the wavelength of the incident laser radiation, and their dimensions depend on many factors, such as chemical composition of the polymer substrate, laser wavelength and the angle of incidence. On the contrary, biopolymers may significantly change their surface roughness and thus influence cell compatibility. The focus was on the surface treatment of PES and PHB by pulse excimer KrF laser with wavelength of 248 nm. The changes of physicochemical properties, surface morphology, surface chemistry and ablation of exposed polymers were studied both for PES and PHB. Several analytical methods involving atomic force microscopy, gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy and others were used for the analysis of the treated surface. It was found that the combination of certain input parameters leads not only to the formation of optimal narrow pattern, but to the combination of a ripple and a wrinkle-like structure, which could be an optimal candidate for cell attachment. The interaction of different types of cells and their interactions with the laser exposed surface were studied. It was found that laser treatment contributes as a major factor for wettability/contact angle change. The combination of optimal laser energy and pulse number was used for the construction of a surface with an anti-cellular response. Due to the simple laser treatment, we were able to prepare a biopolymer surface with higher roughness and thus significantly influence the area of growth of different types of cells (U-2 OS cells).

Keywords: laser, cell response, polymer treatment, periodic pattern

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33 Effect of the Polymer Modification on the Cytocompatibility of Human and Rat Cells

Authors: N. Slepickova Kasalkova, P. Slepicka, L. Bacakova, V. Svorcik

Abstract:

Tissue engineering includes combination of materials and techniques used for the improvement, repair or replacement of the tissue. Scaffolds, permanent or temporally material, are used as support for the creation of the "new cell structures". For this important component (scaffold), a variety of materials can be used. The advantage of some polymeric materials is their cytocompatibility and possibility of biodegradation. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable,  semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. PLLA can be fully degraded into H2O and CO2. In this experiment, the effect of the surface modification of biodegradable polymer (performed by plasma treatment) on the various cell types was studied. The surface parameters and changes of the physicochemical properties of modified PLLA substrates were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was determined by goniometry, surface morphology and roughness study were performed with atomic force microscopy and chemical composition was determined using photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties were studied in relation to cytocompatibility of human osteoblast (MG 63 cells), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and human stem cells (ASC) of the adipose tissue in vitro. A fluorescence microscopy was chosen to study and compare cell-material interaction. Important parameters of the cytocompatibility like adhesion, proliferation, viability, shape, spreading of the cells were evaluated. It was found that the modification leads to the change of the surface wettability depending on the time of modification. Short time of exposition (10-120 s) can reduce the wettability of the aged samples, exposition longer than 150 s causes to increase of contact angle of the aged PLLA. The surface morphology is significantly influenced by duration of modification, too. The plasma treatment involves the formation of the crystallites, whose number increases with increasing time of modification. On the basis of physicochemical properties evaluation, the cells were cultivated on the selected samples. Cell-material interactions are strongly affected by material chemical structure and surface morphology. It was proved that the plasma treatment of PLLA has a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and viability of all cultivated cells. This effect was even more apparent for the VSMCs and ASCs which homogeneously covered almost the whole surface of the substrate after 7 days of cultivation. The viability of these cells was high (more than 98% for VSMCs, 89-96% for ASCs). This experiment is one part of the basic research, which aims to easily create scaffolds for tissue engineering with subsequent use of stem cells and their subsequent "reorientation" towards the bone cells or smooth muscle cells.

Keywords: Plasma Treatment, surface characterization, poly(L-lactic acid), cytocompatibility, rat vascular smooth muscle cells, human stem cells, human osteoblasts

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32 Characterisation of Fractions Extracted from Sorghum Byproducts

Authors: Prima Luna, Afroditi Chatzifragkou, Dimitris Charalampopoulos

Abstract:

Sorghum byproducts, namely bran, stalk, and panicle are examples of lignocellulosic biomass. These raw materials contain large amounts of polysaccharides, in particular hemicelluloses, celluloses, and lignins, which if efficiently extracted, can be utilised for the development of a range of added value products with potential applications in agriculture and food packaging sectors. The aim of this study was to characterise fractions extracted from sorghum bran and stalk with regards to their physicochemical properties that could determine their applicability as food-packaging materials. A sequential alkaline extraction was applied for the isolation of cellulosic, hemicellulosic and lignin fractions from sorghum stalk and bran. Lignin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated in the case of the lignin fraction. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of cellulose fraction of the stalk was ~78.33 oC at amorphous state (~65%) and water content of ~5%. In terms of hemicellulose, the Tg value of stalk was slightly lower compared to bran at amorphous state (~54%) and had less water content (~2%). It is evident that hemicelluloses generally showed a lower thermal stability compared to cellulose, probably due to their lack of crystallinity. Additionally, bran had higher arabinose-to-xylose ratio (0.82) than the stalk, a fact that indicated its low crystallinity. Furthermore, lignin fraction had Tg value of ~93 oC at amorphous state (~11%). Stalk-derived lignin fraction contained more phenolic compounds (mainly consisting of p-coumaric and ferulic acid) and had higher lignin content and antioxidant capacity compared to bran-derived lignin fraction.

Keywords: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, sorghum, alkaline extraction, bran, stalk

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31 Polymer Mediated Interaction between Grafted Nanosheets

Authors: Supriya Gupta, Paresh Chokshi

Abstract:

Polymer-particle interactions can be effectively utilized to produce composites that possess physicochemical properties superior to that of neat polymer. The incorporation of fillers with dimensions comparable to polymer chain size produces composites with extra-ordinary properties owing to very high surface to volume ratio. The dispersion of nanoparticles is achieved by inducing steric repulsion realized by grafting particles with polymeric chains. A comprehensive understanding of the interparticle interaction between these functionalized nanoparticles plays an important role in the synthesis of a stable polymer nanocomposite. With the focus on incorporation of clay sheets in a polymer matrix, we theoretically construct the polymer mediated interparticle potential for two nanosheets grafted with polymeric chains. The self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is employed to obtain the inhomogeneous composition field under equilibrium. Unlike the continuum models, SCFT is built from the microscopic description taking in to account the molecular interactions contributed by both intra- and inter-chain potentials. We present the results of SCFT calculations of the interaction potential curve for two grafted nanosheets immersed in the matrix of polymeric chains of dissimilar chemistry to that of the grafted chains. The interaction potential is repulsive at short separation and shows depletion attraction for moderate separations induced by high grafting density. It is found that the strength of attraction well can be tuned by altering the compatibility between the grafted and the mobile chains. Further, we construct the interaction potential between two nanosheets grafted with diblock copolymers with one of the blocks being chemically identical to the free polymeric chains. The interplay between the enthalpic interaction between the dissimilar species and the entropy of the free chains gives rise to a rich behavior in interaction potential curve obtained for two separate cases of free chains being chemically similar to either the grafted block or the free block of the grafted diblock chains.

Keywords: Polymer Nanocomposites, clay nanosheets, polymer brush, self-consistent field theory

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30 Thermo-Physical Properties and Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine Activated Aqueous Solutions of β-Alanine

Authors: Ghulam Murshid

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gas (GHG) contributors. It is an obligation of the industry to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emission to the acceptable limits. Tremendous research and studies are reported in the past and still the quest to find the suitable and economical solution of this problem needed to be explored in order to develop the most plausible absorber for carbon dioxide removal. Amino acids can be potential alternate solvents for carbon dioxide capture from gaseous streams. This is due to its ability to resist oxidative degradation, low volatility and its ionic structure. In addition, the introduction of promoter-like piperazine to amino acid helps to further enhance the solubility. In this work, the effect of piperazine on thermo physical properties and solubility of β-Alanine aqueous solutions were studied for various concentrations. The measured physicochemical properties data was correlated as a function of temperature using least-squares method and the correlation parameters are reported together with it respective standard deviations. The effect of activator piperazine on the CO2 loading performance of selected amino acid under high-pressure conditions (1bar to 10bar) at temperature range of (30 to 60)oC was also studied. Solubility of CO2 decreases with increasing temperature and increases with increasing pressure. Quadratic representation of solubility using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) shows that the most important parameter to optimize solubility is system pressure. The addition of promoter increases the solubility effect of the solvent.

Keywords: Global Warming, CO2, Amino Acids, solubility

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29 Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Use: Sources Evaluation Perspective

Authors: O. Onoriode Emoyan, E. Eyitemi Akporhonor, Charles Otobrise

Abstract:

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed mainly because of incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence. Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem have been established. However, with limited validity index, previous research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and Cluster Analysis (CA) in PAHs source identification along soil samples of different land uses. Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped, as Endocrine Disruption Substances (EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of PAHs along pyrolitic and petrogenic organics used in source signature is about the predominance PAHs in environmental matrix. Therefore, the distribution of PAHs in the studied stations revealed the presence of trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen PAHs, which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature authentication. Therefore, factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs could be; type and extent of bacterial metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental factors such as salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light intensity, temperature, co-substrates, and environmental medium are hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs.

Keywords: comparative correlation, kinetically, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, thermodynamically- favored PAHs, sources evaluation

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28 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-Rubaye

Abstract:

A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in – situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physicochemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray Analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC).

Keywords: FeCrAlloy, Zeolite ZSM-5. Zeolite coating

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27 Sensory Acceptability of Novel Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Authors: Tamara Anderson, Neela Badrie

Abstract:

Consumers are demanding novel beverages that are healthier, convenient and have appealing consumer acceptance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of adding grape polyphenols and the influence of presenting health claims on the sensory acceptability of wines. Fresh red sorrel calyces were fermented into wines. The total soluble solids of the pectinase-treated sorrel puree were from 4°Brix to 23.8°Brix. Polyphenol in the form of grape pomace extract was added to sorrel wines (w/v) in specified levels to give 0. 25. 50 and 75 ppm. A focus group comprising of 12 panelists was use to select the level of polyphenol to be added to sorrel wines for sensory preference The sensory attributed of the wines which were evaluated were colour, clarity, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall preference. The sorrel wine which was most preferred from focus group evaluation was presented for hedonic rating. In the first stage of hedonic testing, the sorrel wine was served chilled at 7°C for 24 h prior to sensory evaluation. Each panelist was provided with a questionnaire and was asked to rate the wines on colour, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. In the second stage of hedonic testing, the panelist were instructed to read a health abstract on the health benefits of polyphenolic compounds and again to rate sorrel wine with added 25 ppm polyphenol. Paired t-test was used for the analysis of the influence of presenting health information on polyphenols on hedonic scoring of sorrel wines. Focus groups found that the addition of polyphenol addition had no significant effect on sensory color and aroma but affected clarity and flavor. A 25 ppm wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability. The presentation of information on the health benefit of polyphenols in sorrel wines to panelists had no significant influence on the sensory acceptance of wine. More than half of panelists would drink this wine now and then. This wine had color L 19.86±0.68, chroma 2.10±0.12, hue° 16.90 ±3.10 and alcohol content of 13.0%. The sorrel wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability with the added polyphenols.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Health Benefits, polyphenols, sorrel wines, Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L, novel wine

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26 Effect on Physicochemical and Sensory Attributes of Bread Substituted with Different Levels of Matured Soursop (Anona muricata) Flour

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Akmalluddin Md. Yunus

Abstract:

Soursop (Anona muricata) is one of the underutilized tropical fruits containing nutrients, particularly dietary fibre and antioxidant properties that are beneficial to human health. This objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of matured soursop pulp flour (SPF) to be substituted with high-protein wheat flour in bread. Bread formulation was substituted with different levels of SPF (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on physicochemical properties and sensory attributes were evaluated. Higher substitution level of SPF resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) fibre, protein and ash content, while fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (p<0.05). FESEM showed that the bread crumb surface of control and 5% SPF appeared to distribute evenly and coalesced by thin gluten film. However, higher SPF substitution level in bread formulation exhibited a deleterious effect by formation of discontinuous gluten network. For texture profile analysis, 5% SPF bread resulted in the lowest value of hardness. The score of sensory evaluation showed that 5% SPF bread received good acceptability and is comparable with control bread.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, Bread, soursop pulp flour, sensory attributes, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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25 Effect of adding Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (Bay Leaf) on Nutraceutical Property of Tofu

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (bay) leaves obtained at 55°C, 512 bar was found to have appreciable nutraceutical properties and was successfully employed as value-added ingredients in preparation of tofu. The bay leaf formulated tofu sample was evaluated for physicochemical properties (pH, texture analysis and lipid peroxidation), proximate analysis, phytochemical properties (total phenol content, antioxidant properties and total reducing sugar), microbial load and sensory profile analysis for a storage period of ten days, vis-à-vis an experimental control sample. These assays established the superiority of the tofu sample formulated with supercritical carbon dioxide extract of bay leaf over the control sample. Bay leaf extract formulated tofu is a new green functional food with promising nutraceutical benefits. 

Keywords: Cinnamomum tamala, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Physicochemical properties Phytochemical properties, Tofu

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24 Physical and Chemical Properties Analysis of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Industrial Applications

Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Rahimi M. Yusop, Jumat Salimon, Emad Yousif, Nadia Salih

Abstract:

A study on the physicochemical properties of Jatropha curcas seed oil for industrial applications were carried out. Physicochemical properties of J. curcas seed oil (59.32% lipids) showed high content of LA (36.70%), iodine value (104.90 mg/g) and saponification value (203.36 mg/g). The present study shows that, J. curcas seed oil is rich in oleic and linoleic acids. The J. curcas seed oil with the highest amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid) can find an application in surface coating industries and biolubricant base oil applications, whereas the high amount of monounsaturated fatty acid can find an application as a biodiesel feed stock. J. curcas seed oil contains major TAG of monounsaturated OLL, POL, SLL, PLL, OOL, OOO and POP followed by LLL. J. curcas seed oil can be classified as unsaturated oil with an unsaturated fat level of 80.42%. Hence the J. curcas seed oil has great potential for industrial applications such as in paint and surface coatings, production of biodiesel and biolubricant. Therefore, it is crucial to have more research on J. curcas seed oil in the future to explore its potential as a future industrial oilseed crop.

Keywords: Chemical, Industrial Applications, Physical, Jatropha curcas seed oil

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23 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Y. Sangsen, K. Likhitwitayawuid, B. Sritularak, K. Wiwattanawongsa, R. Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: Physicochemical properties, solid lipid nanoparticles, in vitro drug release, oxyresveratrol

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22 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property

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21 Evaluation and Preparation of Crystal Modifications of Artesunate: In vivo Studies

Authors: S. Gupta, R. Chadha

Abstract:

Five crystal modifications of water insoluble artesunate were generated by recrystallizing it from various solvents with improved physicochemical properties. These generated crystal forms were characterized to select the most potent and soluble form. SEM of all the forms showed changes in external shape leading them to be different morphologically. DSC thermograms of Form III and Form V showed broad endotherm peaks at 83.04oC and 76.96oC prior to melting fusion of drug respectively. Calculated weight loss in TGA revealed that Form III and Form V are methanol and acetone solvates respectively. However, few additional peaks were appeared in XRPD pattern in these two solvate forms. All forms exhibit exothermic behavior in buffer and two solvates display maximum ease of molecular release from the lattice. Methanol and acetone solvates were found to be most soluble forms and exhibited higher antimalarial efficacy showing higher survival rate (83.3%) after 30 days.

Keywords: recrystallization, artesunate, Crystal modifications, in vivo studies

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20 TiO2-Zeolite Y Catalyst Prepared Using Impregnation and Ion-Exchange Method for Sonocatalytic Degradation of Amaranth Dye in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Atheel Hassan Alwash, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, Norli Ismail

Abstract:

Characteristics and sonocatalytic activity of zeolite Y catalysts loaded with TiO2 using impregnation and ion exchange methods for the degradation of amaranth dye were investigated. The Ion-exchange method was used to encapsulate the TiO2 into the internal pores of the zeolite while the incorporation of TiO2 mostly on the external surface of zeolite was carried out using the impregnation method. Different characterization techniques were used to elucidate the physicochemical properties of the produced catalysts. The framework of zeolite Y remained virtually unchanged after the encapsulation of TiO2 while the crystallinity of zeolite decreased significantly after the incorporation of 15 wt% of TiO2. The sonocatalytic activity was enhanced by TiO2 incorporation with maximum degradation efficiencies of 50% and 68% for the encapsulated titanium and titanium loaded onto the zeolite, respectively after 120min of reaction. Catalysts characteristics and sonocatalytic behaviors were significantly affected by the preparation method and the location of TiO2 introduced with zeolite structure. Behaviors in the sonocatalytic process were successfully correlated with the characteristics of the catalysts used.

Keywords: impregnation, Sonocatalytic degradation, TiO2 loaded, ionexchange, amaranth dye, process behavior

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19 Degree of Milling Effects on the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Flours, Physicochemical Properties and Kinetics of Starch Digestion

Authors: Brou K., Guéhi T., Konan A. G., Gbakayoro J. B., Gnakri D.

Abstract:

Two types of crushing were applied to grains of red sorghum: manual crushing using a mortar and pestle of kitchen and mechanical crushing using a hammer mill. The flours obtained at the end of these various crushing were filtered and subdivided in different fractions according to the diameters of the mesh of the sieves (0.16mm; 0.25mm; 0.315mm; 0.4mm, and 0.63mm…). Some physical, chemical and nutritional traits of these flours were evaluated using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In vitro digestibility of these flours was also studied with freezing of flour 1% like substrate and α-amylase from B. licheniformis (E.C.3.2.1.1; Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland). The results revealed that the batches of flours which have the finest diameters as 0.16mm; 0.25mm are the richest one in nutrients and are also the most digestible. Also mechanical crushing is the best mean to obtain significant amount of flours. In conclusion, the type of crushing and the size of the particles have an impact on the final concentration of some nutrients of the flours obtained. Indeed, the finest particles (0.16mm – 0.25mm 0.315mm) obtained after sifting of the flours are more nutritive and have a better digestibility than others size. So the finest particles could be advised for management of cereals namely the sorghum for the production of the infantile foods.

Keywords: Nutrients, Milling, digestibility, granulometry, flour, crush

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18 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Ondansetron Hydrochloride Matrix Transdermal Systems Using Ethyl Cellulose/Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Polymer Blends

Authors: Rajan Rajabalaya, Li-Qun Tor, Sheba David

Abstract:

Transdermal delivery of ondansetron hydrochloride (OdHCl) can prevent the problems encountered with oral ondansetron. In previously conducted studies, effect of amount of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, permeation enhancer and casting solvent on the physicochemical properties on OdHCl were investigated. It is feasible to develop ondansetron transdermal patch by using ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone with dibutyl pthalate as plasticizer, however, the desired flux is not achieved. The primary aim of this study is to use dimethyl succinate (DMS) and propylene glycol that are not incorporated in previous studies to determine their effect on the physicochemical properties of an OdHCl transdermal patch using ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. This study also investigates the effect of permeation enhancer (eugenol and phosphatidylcholine) on the release of OdHCl. The results showed that propylene glycol is a more suitable plasticizer compared to DMS in the fabrication of OdHCl transdermal patch using ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as polymers. Propylene glycol containing patch has optimum drug content, thickness, moisture content and water absorption, tensile strength, and a better release profile than DMS. Eugenol and phosphatidylcholine can increase release of OdHCl from the patches. From the physicochemical result and permeation profile, a combination of 350mg of ethyl cellulose, 150mg polyvinyl pyrrolidone, 3% of total polymer weight of eugenol, and 40% of total polymer weight of propylene glycol is the most suitable formulation to develop an OdHCl patch. OdHCl release did not increase with increasing the percentage of plasticiser. DMS 4, PG 4, DMS 9, PG 9, DMS 14, and PG 14 gave better release profiles where using 300mg: 0mg, 300mg: 100mg, and 350mg: 150mg of EC: PVP. Thus, 40% of PG or DMS appeared to be the optimum amount of plasticiser when the above combination where EC: PVP was used. It was concluded from the study that a patch formulation containing 350mg EC, 150mg PVP, 40% PG and 3% eugenol is the best transdermal matrix patch compositions for the uniform and continuous release/permeation of OdHCl over an extended period. This patch design can be used for further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in suitable animal models.

Keywords: eugenol, Ondansetron hydrochloride, dimethyl succinate

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17 Surfactant Stabilized Nanoemulsion: Characterization and Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Ajay Mandal, Achinta Bera

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions are a class of emulsions with a droplet size in the range of 50–500 nm and have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because it is unique characteristics. The physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion suggests that it can be successfully used to recover the residual oil which is trapped in the fine pore of reservoir rock by capillary forces after primary and secondary recovery. Oil-in-water nanoemulsion which can be formed by high-energy emulsification techniques using specific surfactants can reduce oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The present work is aimed on characterization of oil-inwater nanoemulsion in terms of its phase behavior, morphological studies; interfacial energy; ability to reduce the interfacial tension and understanding the mechanisms of mobilization and displacement of entrapped oil blobs by lowering interfacial tension both at the macroscopic and microscopic level. In order to investigate the efficiency of oil-water nanoemulsion in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), experiments were performed to characterize the emulsion in terms of their physicochemical properties and size distribution of the dispersed oil droplet in water phase. Synthetic mineral oil and a series of surfactants were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions. Characterization of emulsion shows that it follows pseudo-plastic behaviour and drop size of dispersed oil phase follows lognormal distribution. Flooding experiments were also carried out in a sandpack system to evaluate the effectiveness of the nanoemulsion as displacing fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Substantial additional recoveries (more than 25% of original oil in place) over conventional water flooding were obtained in the present investigation.

Keywords: Characterization, Nanoemulsion, particle size distribution, Enhanced Oil Recovery

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16 Effect of Passive Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging Materials on Fresh-Cut Mixed Fruit Salad Quality during Storage

Authors: I. Krasnova, L. Dukalska, D. Seglina, K. Juhnevica, E. Sne, D. Karklina

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing in 2011. Fresh-cut minimally processed apple and pear mixed salad were packed by passive modified atmosphere (MAP) in PP containers, which were hermetically sealed by breathable conventional BOPP PropafreshTM P2GAF, and Amcor Agrifresh films. Biodegradable NatureFlexTM NVS INNOVIA Films and VC999 BioPack PLA films coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) were used to compare the fresh-cut produce quality with this packed in conventional packaging films. Samples were cold stored at temperature +4.0±0.5 °C up to 10 days. The quality of salad was evaluated by physicochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, firmness, the effect of packaging modes on the colour, dynamics in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2), titratable acidity values, as well as by microbiological contamination (yeasts, moulds and total bacteria count) of salads, analyzing before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage days.

Keywords: Conventional, Biodegradable packaging, fresh-cut fruit salad

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15 Survey on Nano-fibers from Acetobacter Xylinum

Authors: A. Ashjaran, M. E. Yazdanshenas, A. Rashidi, R. Khajavi, A. Rezaee

Abstract:

fibers of pure cellulose can be made from some bacteria such as acetobacter xylinum. Bacterial cellulose fibers are very pure, tens of nm across and about 0.5 micron long. The fibers are very stiff and, although nobody seems to have measured the strength of individual fibers. Their stiffness up to 70 GPa. Fundamental strengths should be at least greater than those of the best commercial polymers, but best bulk strength seems to about the same as that of steel. They can potentially be produced in industrial quantities at greatly lowered cost and water content, and with triple the yield, by a new process. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose as a biological nonwoven fabric with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Characteristics of bacterial cellulose biofabric with respect to its structure and physicochemical properties are discussed. Current and potential applications of bacterial cellulose in textile, nonwoven cloth, paper, films synthetic fiber coating, food, pharmaceutical and other industries are also presented.

Keywords: polysaccharide, Microbial cellulose, Biofabric, Microorganisms Acetobacter xylinum

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14 Physicochemical Properties of Microemulsions and their uses in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: T. Kumar, Achinta Bera, Ajay Mandal

Abstract:

Use of microemulsion in enhanced oil recovery has become more attractive in recent years because of its high level of extraction efficiency. Experimental investigations have been made on characterization of microemulsions of oil-brinesurfactant/ cosurfactant system for its use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Sodium dodecyl sulfate, propan-1-ol and heptane were selected as surfactant, cosurfactant and oil respectively for preparation of microemulsion. The effects of salinity on the relative phase volumes and solubilization parameters have also been studied. As salinity changes from low to high value, phase transition takes place from Winsor I to Winsor II via Winsor III. Suitable microemulsion composition has been selected based on its stability and ability to reduce interfacial tension. A series of flooding experiments have been performed using the selected microemulsion. The flooding experiments were performed in a core flooding apparatus using uniform sand pack. The core holder was tightly packed with uniform sands (60-100 mesh) and saturated with brines of different salinities. It was flooded with the brine at 25 psig and the absolute permeability was calculated from the flow rate of the through sand pack. The sand pack was then flooded with the crude oil at 800 psig to irreducible water saturation. The initial water saturation was determined on the basis of mass balance. Waterflooding was conducted by placing the coreholder horizontally at a constant injection pressure at 200 pisg. After water flooding, when water-cut reached above 95%, around 0.5 pore volume (PV) of the above microemulsion slug was injected followed by chasing water. The experiments were repeated using different composition of microemulsion slug. The additional recoveries were calculated by material balance. Encouraging results with additional recovery more than 20% of original oil in place above the conventional water flooding have been observed.

Keywords: Enhanced Oil Recovery, phase behavior, Microemulsion Flooding, Optimal salinity

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13 Steam Gasification of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS): Effect of Fe/BEA and Ni/BEA Catalysts and Steam to Biomass Ratio on Composition of Gaseous Products

Authors: M.F. Mohamad, Anita Ramli, S.E.E Misi, S. Yusup

Abstract:

This work presents the hydrogen production from steam gasification of palm kernel shell (PKS) at 700 oC in the presence of 5% Ni/BEA and 5% Fe/BEA as catalysts. The steam gasification was performed in two-staged reactors to evaluate the effect of calcinations temperature and the steam to biomass ratio on the product gas composition. The catalytic activity of Ni/BEA catalyst decreases with increasing calcinations temperatures from 500 to 700 oC. The highest H2 concentration is produced by Fe/BEA (600) with more than 71 vol%. The catalytic activity of the catalysts tested is found to correspond to its physicochemical properties. The optimum range for steam to biomass ratio if found to be between 2 to 4. Excess steam content results in temperature drop in the gasifier which is undesirable for the gasification reactions.

Keywords: Hydrogen, palm kernel shell, Steam gasification, Ni/BEA, Fe/BEA

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12 Effect of Pre-drying Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Dehydrated Tomato Slices

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni, Reihaneh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

Abstract:

Tomato powder has good potential as substitute of tomato paste and other tomato products. In order to protect physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of tomato during dehydration process, investigation was carried out using different drying methods and pretreatments. Solar drier and continuous conveyor (tunnel) drier were used for dehydration where as calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium metabisulphite (KMS), calcium chloride and potassium metabisulphite (CaCl2 +KMS), and sodium chloride (NaCl) selected for treatment.. lycopene content, dehydration ratio, rehydration ratio and non-enzymatic browning in addition to moisture, sugar and titrable acidity were studied. Results show that pre-treatment with CaCl2 and NaCl increased water removal and moisture mobility in tomato slices during drying of tomatoes. Where CaCl2 used along with KMS the NEB was recorded the least compared to other treatments and the best results were obtained while using the two chemicals in combination form. Storage studies in LDPE polymeric and metalized polyesters films showed less changes in the products packed in metallized polyester pouches and even after 6 months lycopene content did not decrease more than 20% as compared to the control sample and provide extension of shelf life in acceptable condition for 6 months. In most of the quality characteristics tunnel drier samples presented better values in comparison to solar drier.

Keywords: lycopene, dehydration, browning, Tomato powder

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11 Application of a Modified BCR Approach to Investigate the Mobility and Availability of Trace Elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo,Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg) from a Solid Residue Matrix Designed for Soil Amendment

Authors: Mikko Mäkelä, Risto Pöykiö, Gary Watkins, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Olli Dahl

Abstract:

Trace element speciation of an integrated soil amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization capacity comparable to commercial fertilizers. Additionally, the pseudo-total concentrations of all trace elements included in the Finnish regulation for agricultural fertilizers were lower than the respective statutory limit values. According to chemical speciation, the lability of trace elements increased in the following order: Hg < Cr < Co < Cu < As < Zn < Ni < Pb < Cd < V < Mo < Ba. The validity of the BCR approach as a tool for chemical speciation was confirmed by the additional acid digestion phase. Recovery of trace elements during the procedure assured the validity of the approach and indicated good quality of the analytical work.

Keywords: Bioavailability, trace element, sequential extraction, BCR, industrialresidue

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10 Anticancer Effect of Doxorubicin Loaded Heparin based Super-paramagnetic Iron oxide Nanoparticles against the Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

Authors: Amaneh Javid, Shahin Ahmadian, Ali A. Saboury, Saeed Rezaei-Zarchi

Abstract:

This study determines the effect of naked and heparinbased super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the human cancer cell lines of A2780. Doxorubicin was used as the anticancer drug, entrapped in the SPIO-NPs. This study aimed to decorate nanoparticles with heparin, a molecular ligand for 'active' targeting of cancerous cells and the application of modified-nanoparticles in cancer treatment. The nanoparticles containing the anticancer drug DOX were prepared by a solvent evaporation and emulsification cross-linking method. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques, and uniform nanoparticles with an average particle size of 110±15 nm with high encapsulation efficiencies (EE) were obtained. Additionally, a sustained release of DOX from the SPIO-NPs was successful. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the SPIO-DOX-HP had higher cell toxicity than the individual HP and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed excellent cellular uptake efficiency. These results indicate that HP based SPIO-NPs have potential uses as anticancer drug carriers and also have an enhanced anticancer effect.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Ovarian Cancer, doxorubicin, heparin, A2780 cells

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