Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: SIMPLE algorithm

21 The Influence of Beta Shape Parameters in Project Planning

Authors: Αlexios Kotsakis, Stefanos Katsavounis, Dimitra Alexiou

Abstract:

Networks can be utilized to represent project planning problems, using nodes for activities and arcs to indicate precedence relationship between them. For fixed activity duration, a simple algorithm calculates the amount of time required to complete a project, followed by the activities that comprise the critical path. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) generalizes the above model by incorporating uncertainty, allowing activity durations to be random variables, producing nevertheless a relatively crude solution in planning problems. In this paper, based on the findings of the relevant literature, which strongly suggests that a Beta distribution can be employed to model earthmoving activities, we utilize Monte Carlo simulation, to estimate the project completion time distribution and measure the influence of skewness, an element inherent in activities of modern technical projects. We also extract the activity criticality index, with an ultimate goal to produce more accurate planning estimations.

Keywords: Monte Carlo Simulation, Skewness, PERT, beta distribution, project completion time distribution

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 226
20 A Computational Study of Very High Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Circular Duct with Hemispherical Inline Baffles

Authors: Dipak Sen, Rajdeep Ghosh

Abstract:

This paper presents a computational study of steady state three dimensional very high turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics in a constant temperature-surfaced circular duct fitted with 900 hemispherical inline baffles. The computations are based on realizable k-ɛ model with standard wall function considering the finite volume method, and the SIMPLE algorithm has been implemented. Computational Study are carried out for Reynolds number, Re ranging from 80000 to 120000, Prandtl Number, Pr of 0.73, Pitch Ratios, PR of 1,2,3,4,5 based on the hydraulic diameter of the channel, hydrodynamic entry length, thermal entry length and the test section. Ansys Fluent 15.0 software has been used to solve the flow field. Study reveals that circular pipe having baffles has a higher Nusselt number and friction factor compared to the smooth circular pipe without baffles. Maximum Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained for the PR=5 and PR=1 respectively. Nusselt number increases while pitch ratio increases in the range of study; however, friction factor also decreases up to PR 3 and after which it becomes almost constant up to PR 5. Thermal enhancement factor increases with increasing pitch ratio but with slightly decreasing Reynolds number in the range of study and becomes almost constant at higher Reynolds number. The computational results reveal that optimum thermal enhancement factor of 900 inline hemispherical baffle is about 1.23 for pitch ratio 5 at Reynolds number 120000.It also shows that the optimum pitch ratio for which the baffles can be installed in such very high turbulent flows should be 5. Results show that pitch ratio and Reynolds number play an important role on both fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Turbulent Flow, friction factor, baffle, pitch ratio, circular duct

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1784
19 CFD Prediction of the Round Elbow Fitting Loss Coefficient

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Pressure loss in ductworks is an important factor to be considered in design of engineering systems such as power-plants, refineries, HVAC systems to reduce energy costs. Ductwork can be composed by straight ducts and different types of fittings (elbows, transitions, converging and diverging tees and wyes). Duct fittings are significant sources of pressure loss in fluid distribution systems. Fitting losses can be even more significant than equipment components such as coils, filters, and dampers. At the present work, a conventional 90o round elbow under turbulent incompressible airflow is studied. Mass, momentum, and k-e turbulence model equations are solved employing the finite volume method. The SIMPLE algorithm is used for the pressure-velocity coupling. In order to validate the numerical tool, the elbow pressure loss coefficient is determined using the same conditions to compare with ASHRAE database. Furthermore, the effect of Reynolds number variation on the elbow pressure loss coefficient is investigated. These results can be useful to perform better preliminary design of air distribution ductworks in air conditioning systems.

Keywords: duct fitting, pressure loss, elbow

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4169
18 Time Series Regression with Meta-Clusters

Authors: Monika Chuchro

Abstract:

This paper presents a preliminary attempt to apply classification of time series using meta-clusters in order to improve the quality of regression models. In this case, clustering was performed as a method to obtain subgroups of time series data with normal distribution from the inflow into wastewater treatment plant data, composed of several groups differing by mean value. Two simple algorithms, K-mean and EM, were chosen as a clustering method. The Rand index was used to measure the similarity. After simple meta-clustering, a regression model was performed for each subgroups. The final model was a sum of the subgroups models. The quality of the obtained model was compared with the regression model made using the same explanatory variables, but with no clustering of data. Results were compared using determination coefficient (R2), measure of prediction accuracy- mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and comparison on a linear chart. Preliminary results allow us to foresee the potential of the presented technique.

Keywords: Data Mining, Data Analysis, Clustering, Predictive Models

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1585
17 A Content-Based Optimization of Data Stream Television Multiplex

Authors: Jaroslav Polec, Martin Šimek, Michal Martinovič, Elena Šikudová

Abstract:

The television multiplex has reserved capacity and therefore we can use only limited number of videos for propagation of it. Appropriate composition of the multiplex has a major impact on how many videos is spread by multiplex. Therefore in this paper is designed a simple algorithm to optimize capacity utilization multiplex. Significant impact on the number of programs in the multiplex has also the fact from which programs is composed. Content of multiplex can be movies, news, sport, animated stories, documentaries, etc. These types have their own specific characteristics that affect their resulting data stream. In this paper is also done an impact analysis of the composition of the multiplex to use its capacity by video content. 

Keywords: Capacity, content, frame, Multiplex, group of pictures

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1098
16 Numerical Study of Oxygen Enrichment on NO Pollution Spread in a Combustion Chamber

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aim to obtain detailed information on combustion characteristics and _ nitrogen oxides in the furnace and the effect of oxygen enrichment in a combustion process. Oxygenenriched combustion is an effective way to reduce emissions. This paper analyzes NO emission, including thermal NO and prompt NO. Flow rate ratio of air to fuel is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.32 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Results show that for AF=1.3, increase the oxygen flow rate of oxygen reduction in NO emissions is Lance. Moreover, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak, but not the NO emission rate. As a result, oxygen enrichment can reduce the NO emission at this kind of furnace in low air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion Chamber, NO emission, oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1275
15 Numerical Study on CO2 Pollution in an Ignition Chamber by Oxygen Enrichment

Authors: Zohreh Orshesh

Abstract:

In this study, a 3D combustion chamber was simulated using FLUENT 6.32. Aims to obtain accurate information about the profile of the combustion in the furnace and also check the effect of oxygen enrichment on the combustion process. Oxygen enrichment is an effective way to reduce combustion pollutant. The flow rate of air to fuel ratio is varied as 1.3, 3.2 and 5.1 and the oxygen enriched flow rates are 28, 54 and 68 lit/min. Combustion simulations typically involve the solution of the turbulent flows with heat transfer, species transport and chemical reactions. It is common to use the Reynolds-averaged form of the governing equation in conjunction with a suitable turbulence model. The 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations with standard k-ε turbulence model are solved together by Fluent 6.3 software. First order upwind scheme is used to model governing equations and the SIMPLE algorithm is used as pressure velocity coupling. Species mass fractions at the wall are assumed to have zero normal gradients.Results show that minimum mole fraction of CO2 happens when the flow rate ratio of air to fuel is 5.1. Additionally, in a fixed oxygen enrichment condition, increasing the air to fuel ratio will increase the temperature peak. As a result, oxygen-enrichment can reduce the CO2 emission at this kind of furnace in high air to fuel rates.

Keywords: Combustion Chamber, CO2 emission, oxygen enrichment, Reynolds Averaged Navier- Stokes

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1170
14 CFD Predictions of Dense Slurry Flow in Centrifugal Pump Casings

Authors: Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Pankaj K. Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, M. R. Ravi

Abstract:

Dense slurry flow through centrifugal pump casing has been modeled using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT 6.1®. First order upwinding is considered for the discretization of momentum, k and ε terms. SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for dealing with pressurevelocity coupling. A mixture property based k-ε turbulence model has been used for modeling turbulence. Results are validated first against mesh independence and experiments for a particular set of operational and geometric conditions. Parametric analysis is then performed to determine the effect on important physical quantities viz. solid velocities, solid concentration and solid stresses near the wall with various operational geometric conditions of the pump.

Keywords: wall shear stress, Centrifugal pump casing, Dense slurry, Solidsconcentration, Pump geometric parameters

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4343
13 Numerical Modeling of Natural Convection on Various Configuration of Rectangular Fin Arrays on Vertical Base Plates

Authors: H.R.Goshayeshi, M.Fahim inia, M.M.Naserian

Abstract:

In this research, the laminar heat transfer of natural convection on vertical surfaces has been investigated. Most of the studies on natural convection have been considered constantly whereas velocity and temperature domain, do not change with time, transient one are used a lot. Governing equations are solved using a finite volume approach. The convective terms are discretized using the power-law scheme, whereas for diffusive terms the central difference is employed. Coupling between the velocity and pressure is made with SIMPLE algorithm. The resultant system of discretized linear algebraic equations is solved with an alternating direction implicit scheme. Then a configuration of rectangular fins is put in different ways on the surface and heat transfer of natural convection on these surfaces without sliding is studied and finally optimization is done.

Keywords: natural convection, vertical surfaces, SIMPLE algorithm, Rectangular fins

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1153
12 Calculation of Wave Function at the Origin (WFO) for Heavy Mesons by Numerical Solving of the Schrodinger Equation

Authors: M. Momeni Feyli

Abstract:

Many recent high energy physics calculations involving charm and beauty invoke wave function at the origin (WFO) for the meson bound state. Uncertainties of charm and beauty quark masses and different models for potentials governing these bound states require a simple numerical algorithm for evaluation of the WFO's for these bound states. We present a simple algorithm for this propose which provides WFO's with high precision compared with similar ones already obtained in the literature.

Keywords: mesons, Schrödinger Equation, Bound States, Nonrelativistic quark model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1118
11 EZW Coding System with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Saudagar Abdul Khader Jilani, Syed Abdul Sattar

Abstract:

Image compression plays a vital role in today-s communication. The limitation in allocated bandwidth leads to slower communication. To exchange the rate of transmission in the limited bandwidth the Image data must be compressed before transmission. Basically there are two types of compressions, 1) LOSSY compression and 2) LOSSLESS compression. Lossy compression though gives more compression compared to lossless compression; the accuracy in retrievation is less in case of lossy compression as compared to lossless compression. JPEG, JPEG2000 image compression system follows huffman coding for image compression. JPEG 2000 coding system use wavelet transform, which decompose the image into different levels, where the coefficient in each sub band are uncorrelated from coefficient of other sub bands. Embedded Zero tree wavelet (EZW) coding exploits the multi-resolution properties of the wavelet transform to give a computationally simple algorithm with better performance compared to existing wavelet transforms. For further improvement of compression applications other coding methods were recently been suggested. An ANN base approach is one such method. Artificial Neural Network has been applied to many problems in image processing and has demonstrated their superiority over classical methods when dealing with noisy or incomplete data for image compression applications. The performance analysis of different images is proposed with an analysis of EZW coding system with Error Backpropagation algorithm. The implementation and analysis shows approximately 30% more accuracy in retrieved image compare to the existing EZW coding system.

Keywords: Performance, Compression, Accuracy, JPEG2000, EZW

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
10 Distributed Estimation Using an Improved Incremental Distributed LMS Algorithm

Authors: Amir Rastegarnia, Mohammad Ali Tinati, Azam Khalili

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the problem of distributed adaptive estimation in wireless sensor networks for two different observation noise conditions. In the first case, we assume that there are some sensors with high observation noise variance (noisy sensors) in the network. In the second case, different variance for observation noise is assumed among the sensors which is more close to real scenario. In both cases, an initial estimate of each sensor-s observation noise is obtained. For the first case, we show that when there are such sensors in the network, the performance of conventional distributed adaptive estimation algorithms such as incremental distributed least mean square (IDLMS) algorithm drastically decreases. In addition, detecting and ignoring these sensors leads to a better performance in a sense of estimation. In the next step, we propose a simple algorithm to detect theses noisy sensors and modify the IDLMS algorithm to deal with noisy sensors. For the second case, we propose a new algorithm in which the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As the simulation results show, the proposed methods outperforms the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.

Keywords: Sensor Networks, adaptive filter, Distributes estimation, IDLMS

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1113
9 Minimizing Examinee Collusion with a Latin- Square Treatment Structure

Authors: M. H. Omar

Abstract:

Cheating on standardized tests has been a major concern as it potentially minimizes measurement precision. One major way to reduce cheating by collusion is to administer multiple forms of a test. Even with this approach, potential collusion is still quite large. A Latin-square treatment structure for distributing multiple forms is proposed to further reduce the colluding potential. An index to measure the extent of colluding potential is also proposed. Finally, with a simple algorithm, the various Latin-squares were explored to find the best structure to keep the colluding potential to a minimum.

Keywords: Colluding pairs, Scale for Colluding Potential, Latin-Square Structure, Minimization of Cheating

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 846
8 CFD Modeling of PROX Microreactor for Fuel Processing

Authors: M. Vahabi, M. H. Akbari

Abstract:

In order to investigate a PROX microreactor performance, two-dimensional modeling of the reacting flow between two parallel plates is performed through a finite volume method using an improved SIMPLE algorithm. A three-step surface kinetics including hydrogen oxidation, carbon monoxide oxidation and water-gas shift reaction is applied for a Pt-Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and operating temperatures of about 100ºC. Flow pattern, pressure field, temperature distribution, and mole fractions of species are found in the whole domain for all cases. Also, the required reactive length for removing carbon monoxide from about 2% to less than 10 ppm is found. Furthermore, effects of hydraulic diameter, wall temperature, and inlet mole fraction of air and water are investigated by considering carbon monoxide selectivity and conversion. It is found that air and water addition may improve the performance of the microreactor in carbon monoxide removal in such operating conditions; this is in agreement with the pervious published results.

Keywords: CFD, Fuel Processing, simple algorithm, PROX, Reacting Flow

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1127
7 Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear Systems by use of a Certain Decomposition of the Coefficient Matrix

Authors: S. H. Nasseri, M. Sohrabi, E. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, we give a certain decomposition of the coefficient matrix of the fully fuzzy linear system (FFLS) to obtain a simple algorithm for solving these systems. The new algorithm can solve FFLS in a smaller computing process. We will illustrate our method by solving some examples.

Keywords: fuzzy number, Fully fuzzy linear system, LUdecomposition

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
6 Numerical Simulation of a Conventional Heat Pipe

Authors: Shoeib Mahjoub, Ali Mahtabroshan

Abstract:

The steady incompressible flow has been solved in cylindrical coordinates in both vapour region and wick structure. The governing equations in vapour region are continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations. These equations have been solved using SIMPLE algorithm. For study of parameters variation on heat pipe operation, a benchmark has been chosen and the effect of changing one parameter has been analyzed when the others have been fixed.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Vapour region, conventional heat pipe

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3614
5 Implementation of Watch Dog Timer for Fault Tolerant Computing on Cluster Server

Authors: Meenakshi Bheevgade, Rajendra M. Patrikar

Abstract:

In today-s new technology era, cluster has become a necessity for the modern computing and data applications since many applications take more time (even days or months) for computation. Although after parallelization, computation speeds up, still time required for much application can be more. Thus, reliability of the cluster becomes very important issue and implementation of fault tolerant mechanism becomes essential. The difficulty in designing a fault tolerant cluster system increases with the difficulties of various failures. The most imperative obsession is that the algorithm, which avoids a simple failure in a system, must tolerate the more severe failures. In this paper, we implemented the theory of watchdog timer in a parallel environment, to take care of failures. Implementation of simple algorithm in our project helps us to take care of different types of failures; consequently, we found that the reliability of this cluster improves.

Keywords: Cluster, Grid, fault tolerant, Grid ComputingSystem, Meta-computing

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1764
4 Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition

Authors: Serkan Ozbay, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection, red light violation enforcement, border and customs checkpoints, etc.). License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems. In this study, a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle-s license plate recognition system. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region, segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. For extracting the plate region, edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. In segmentation part, smearing algorithms, filtering and some morphological algorithms are used. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images. Based on the experimental results, we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition.

Keywords: Segmentation, license plate recognition, template matching, Character recognizer, plate region extraction, smearing

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7065
3 Bandwidth allocation in ATM Network for different QOS Requirements

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

For future Broad band ISDN, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is designed not only to support a wide range of traffic classes with diverse flow characteristics, but also to guarantee the different quality of service QOS requirements. The QOS may be measured in terms of cell loss probability and maximum cell delay. In this paper, ATM networks in which the virtual path (VP) concept is implemented are considered. By applying the Markov Deterministic process method, an efficient algorithm to compute the minimum capacity required to satisfy the QOS requirements when multiple classes of on-off are multiplexed on to a single VP. Using the result, we then proposed a simple algorithm to determine different combinations of VP to achieve the optimum of the total capacity required for satisfying the individual QOS requirements (loss- delay).

Keywords: Bandwidth Allocation, quality of services, ATMNetwork, virtual path

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1237
2 Designing a Football Team of Robots from Beginning to End

Authors: Maziar A. Sharbafi, Caro Lucas, Aida Mohammadinejad, Mostafa Yaghobi

Abstract:

The Combination of path planning and path following is the main purpose of this paper. This paper describes the developed practical approach to motion control of the MRL small size robots. An intelligent controller is applied to control omni-directional robots motion in simulation and real environment respectively. The Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC), based on LQR control is adopted for the omni-directional robots. The contribution of BELBIC in improving the control system performance is shown as application of the emotional learning in a real world problem. Optimizing of the control effort can be achieved in this method too. Next the implicit communication method is used to determine the high level strategies and coordination of the robots. Some simple rules besides using the environment as a memory to improve the coordination between agents make the robots' decision making system. With this simple algorithm our team manifests a desirable cooperation.

Keywords: LQR, MIMO System, multi-agent systems (MAS), Emotional learning, BELBIC, Communication via environment

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1423
1 Authenticated Mobile Device Proxy Service

Authors: W. Adi, Khaled E. A. Negm, A. Mabrouk, H. Ghraieb

Abstract:

In the current study we present a system that is capable to deliver proxy based differentiated service. It will help the carrier service node to sell a prepaid service to clients and limit the use to a particular mobile device or devices for a certain time. The system includes software and hardware architecture for a mobile device with moderate computational power, and a secure protocol for communication between it and its carrier service node. On the carrier service node a proxy runs on a centralized server to be capable of implementing cryptographic algorithms, while the mobile device contains a simple embedded processor capable of executing simple algorithms. One prerequisite is needed for the system to run efficiently that is a presence of Global Trusted Verification Authority (GTVA) which is equivalent to certifying authority in IP networks. This system appears to be of great interest for many commercial transactions, business to business electronic and mobile commerce, and military applications.

Keywords: Mobile Device Security, Identity Authentication, Mobile Commerce Security

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1254