Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Robotic Surgery Related Publications

3 The Visual Inspection of Surgical Tasks Using Machine Vision: Applications to Robotic Surgery

Authors: M. Ovinis, D. Kerr, K. Bouazza-Marouf, M. Vloeberghs

Abstract:

In this paper, the feasibility of using machine vision to assess task completion in a surgical intervention is investigated, with the aim of incorporating vision based inspection in robotic surgery systems. The visually rich operative field presents a good environment for the development of automated visual inspection techniques in these systems, for a more comprehensive approach when performing a surgical task. As a proof of concept, machine vision techniques were used to distinguish the two possible outcomes i.e. satisfactory or unsatisfactory, of three primary surgical tasks involved in creating a burr hole in the skull, namely incision, retraction, and drilling. Encouraging results were obtained for the three tasks under consideration, which has been demonstrated by experiments on cadaveric pig heads. These findings are suggestive for the potential use of machine vision to validate successful task completion in robotic surgery systems. Finally, the potential of using machine vision in the operating theatre, and the challenges that must be addressed, are identified and discussed.

Keywords: Machine Vision, Robotic Surgery, Visual inspection

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2 Machine Vision for the Inspection of Surgical Tasks: Applications to Robotic Surgery Systems

Authors: M. Ovinis, D. Kerr, K. Bouazza-Marouf, M. Vloeberghs

Abstract:

The use of machine vision to inspect the outcome of surgical tasks is investigated, with the aim of incorporating this approach in robotic surgery systems. Machine vision is a non-contact form of inspection i.e. no part of the vision system is in direct contact with the patient, and is therefore well suited for surgery where sterility is an important consideration,. As a proof-of-concept, three primary surgical tasks for a common neurosurgical procedure were inspected using machine vision. Experiments were performed on cadaveric pig heads to simulate the two possible outcomes i.e. satisfactory or unsatisfactory, for tasks involved in making a burr hole, namely incision, retraction, and drilling. We identify low level image features to distinguish the two outcomes, as well as report on results that validate our proposed approach. The potential of using machine vision in a surgical environment, and the challenges that must be addressed, are identified and discussed.

Keywords: Machine Vision, Robotic Surgery, Visual inspection

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1 Design, Modeling and Fabrication of a Tactile Sensor and Display System for Application in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: M. Ramezanifard, J. Dargahi, S. Najarian, N. Narayanan

Abstract:

One of the major disadvantages of the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is the lack of tactile feedback to the surgeon. In order to identify and avoid any damage to the grasped complex tissue by endoscopic graspers, it is important to measure the local softness of tissue during MIS. One way to display the measured softness to the surgeon is a graphical method. In this paper, a new tactile sensor has been reported. The tactile sensor consists of an array of four softness sensors, which are integrated into the jaws of a modified commercial endoscopic grasper. Each individual softness sensor consists of two piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) films, which are positioned below a rigid and a compliant cylinder. The compliant cylinder is fabricated using a micro molding technique. The combination of output voltages from PVDF films is used to determine the softness of the grasped object. The theoretical analysis of the sensor is also presented. A method has been developed with the aim of reproducing the tactile softness to the surgeon by using a graphical method. In this approach, the proposed system, including the interfacing and the data acquisition card, receives signals from the array of softness sensors. After the signals are processed, the tactile information is displayed by means of a color coding method. It is shown that the degrees of softness of the grasped objects/tissues can be visually differentiated and displayed on a monitor.

Keywords: Sensor, Robotic Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery, tactile, Softness

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