Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Reynolds number Related Publications

18 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Ram Balachandar, Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: Turbulence, Reynolds number, roughness, open channel flow

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 711
17 Velocity Distribution in Open Channels with Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: E. Keramaris

Abstract:

In this study, laboratory experiments in open channel flows over a sand bed were conducted. A porous bed (sand bed) with porosity of ε=0.70 and porous thickness of s΄=3 cm was tested. Vertical distributions of velocity were evaluated by using a two-dimensional (2D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Velocity profiles are measured above the impermeable bed and above the sand bed for the same different total water heights (h= 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) and for the same slope S=1.5. Measurements of mean velocity indicate the effects of the bed material used (sand bed) on the flow characteristics (Velocity distribution and Reynolds number) in comparison with those above the impermeable bed.

Keywords: Particle Image Velocimetry, Reynolds number, velocity distribution, sand bed

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1337
16 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. Expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points, and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on magnitude velocity, shear stress, and pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases magnitude velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation, and reattachment points are strongly affected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: Reynolds number, approximate solution, non-Newtonian fluids, constricted tube

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1372
15 Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow

Authors: Ram Balachandar, Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

An experimental study with four different types of bed conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness conditions, which were generated using sand grains with a median diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, correlation between the streamwise and the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness. Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence structure.

Keywords: Turbulence, Reynolds number, open channel flow, smooth bed, rough bed

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727
14 Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Drops Suspended in Poiseuille Flow: Effect of Reynolds Number

Authors: A. Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

A finite difference/front tracking method is used to study the motion of three-dimensional deformable drops suspended in plane Poiseuille flow at non-zero Reynolds numbers. A parallel version of the code was used to study the behavior of suspension on a reasonable grid resolution (grids). The viscosity and density of drops are assumed to be equal to that of the suspending medium. The effect of the Reynolds number is studied in detail. It is found that drops with small deformation behave like rigid particles and migrate to an equilibrium position about half way between the wall and the centerline (the Segre-Silberberg effect). However, for highly deformable drops there is a tendency for drops to migrate to the middle of the channel, and the maximum concentration occurs at the centerline. The effective viscosity of suspension and the fluctuation energy of the flow across the channel increases with the Reynolds number of the flow.

Keywords: Suspensions, Reynolds number, Poiseuille flow, effective viscosity

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1625
13 Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows

Authors: Israt Jahan Eshita

Abstract:

Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

Keywords: Reynolds number, hydraulic diameter, k-epsilon model, meshes convergence, RNG model, sink flow, source flow and wall y+

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2153
12 Computational Analysis of the Scaling Effects on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Junting Xiang, Jörg Uwe Schlüter, Fei Duan

Abstract:

The miniaturization of gas turbines promises many advantages. Miniature gas turbines can be used for local power generation or the propulsion of small aircraft, such as UAV and MAV. However, experience shows that the miniaturization of conventional gas turbines, which are optimized at their current large size, leads to a substantial loss of efficiency and performance at smaller scales. This may be due to a number of factors, such as the Reynolds-number effect, the increased heat transfer, and manufacturing tolerances. In the present work, we focus on computational investigations of the Reynolds number effect and the wall heat transfer on the performance of axial compressor during its size change. The NASA stage 35 compressor is selected as the configuration in this study and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to carry out the miniaturization process and simulations. We perform parameter studies on the effect of Reynolds number and wall thermal conditions. Our results indicate a decrease of efficiency, if the compressor is miniaturized based on its original geometry due to the increase of viscous effects. The increased heat transfer through wall has only a small effect and will actually benefit compressor performance based on our study.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, CFD, Reynolds number, axial compressor, miniature gas turbines

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2778
11 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x»10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra demonstrated the largest eddy structures for the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR

Keywords: Reynolds number, plane jet, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2449
10 Influence of After Body Shape on the Performance of Blunt Shaped Bodies as Vortex Shedders

Authors: Lavish Ordia, A. Venugopal, Amit Agrawal, S. V. Prabhu

Abstract:

The present study explores flow visualization experiments with various blunt shaped bluff bodies placed inside a circular pipe. The bodies mainly comprise of modifications of trapezoidal cylinder, most widely used in practical applications, such as vortex flowmeters. The present configuration possesses the feature of both internal and external flows with low aspect ratio. The vortex dynamics of bluff bodies in such configuration is seldom reported in the literature. Dye injection technique is employed to visualize the complex vortex formation mechanism behind the bluff bodies. The influence of orientation, slit and after body shape is studied in an attempt to obtain better understanding of the vortex formation mechanism. Various wake parameters like Strouhal number, vortex formation length and wake width are documented for these shapes. Vortex formation both with and without shear layer interaction is observed for most of the shapes.

Keywords: vortex, Reynolds number, flow visualization, Strouhal number, vortex formation length, wake width

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2535
9 Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Jet Impingement Cooling

Authors: Arun Jacob, Leena R., Krishnakumar T.S., Jose Prakash M.

Abstract:

Effective cooling of electronic equipment has emerged as a challenging and constraining problem of the new century. In the present work the feasibility and effectiveness of jet impingement cooling on electronics were investigated numerically and experimentally. Studies have been conducted to see the effect of the geometrical parameters such as jet diameter (D), jet to target spacing (Z) and ratio of jet spacing to jet diameter (Z/D) on the heat transfer characteristics. The values of Reynolds numbers considered are in the range 7000 to 42000. The results obtained from the numerical studies are validated by conducting experiments. From the studies it is found that the optimum value of Z/D ratio is 5. For a given Reynolds number, the Nusselt number increases by about 28% if the diameter of the nozzle is increased from 1mm to 2mm. Correlations are proposed for Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and these are valid for air as the cooling medium.

Keywords: CFD, Reynolds number, heat transfer coefficient, turbulence model, nusselt number, ratio of jet diameter to jet spacing (Z/D)

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2254
8 Experimental and CFD Investigation of Nozzle Angle in Jet Mixer

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Sedaghat, Reza Janamiri, Amir Hatampour, Hamid Rafiei

Abstract:

In this work, the results of mixing study by a jet mixer in a tank have been investigated in the laboratory scale. The tank dimensions are H/D=1 and the jet entrance have been considered in the center of upper surface of tank. RNG-k-ε model is used as the turbulent model for the prediction of the pattern of turbulent flow inside the tank. For this purpose, a tank with volume of 110 liter is simulated and it has been divided into 410,000 tetrahedral control cells for performing the calculations. The grids at the vicinity of the nozzle and suction pare are finer to get more accurate results. The experimental results showed that in a vertical jet, the lowest mixing time takes place at 35 degree. In addition, mixing time decreased by increasing the Reynolds number. Furthermore, the CFD simulation predicted the items as well a flow patterns precisely that validates the experiments.

Keywords: CFD, Reynolds number, turbulent model, mixing time, Jet mixer, Nozzle angle

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2209
7 Rear Separation in a Rotating Fluid at Moderate Taylor Numbers

Authors: S. Damodaran, T. V. S.Sekhar

Abstract:

The motion of a sphere moving along the axis of a rotating viscous fluid is studied at high Reynolds numbers and moderate values of Taylor number. The Higher Order Compact Scheme is used to solve the governing Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are written in the form of Stream function, Vorticity function and angular velocity which are highly non-linear, coupled and elliptic partial differential equations. The flow is governed by two parameters Reynolds number (Re) and Taylor number (T). For very low values of Re and T, the results agree with the available experimental and theoretical results in the literature. The results are obtained at higher values of Re and moderate values of T and compared with the experimental results. The results are fourth order accurate.

Keywords: Reynolds number, rotating fluid, Higher order compact scheme, Navier_Stokes equations, Taylor number

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1024
6 Airfoils Aerodynamic Efficiency Study in Heavy Rain via Two Phase Flow Approach

Authors: Cao Yihua, Zhao Ming, M. Ismail

Abstract:

Heavy rainfall greatly affects the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. There are many accidents of aircraft caused by aerodynamic efficiency degradation by heavy rain. In this Paper we have studied the heavy rain effects on the aerodynamic efficiency of NACA 64-210 & NACA 0012 airfoils. For our analysis, CFD method and preprocessing grid generator are used as our main analytical tools, and the simulation of rain is accomplished via two phase flow approach-s Discrete Phase Model (DPM). Raindrops are assumed to be non-interacting, non-deforming, non-evaporating and non-spinning spheres. Both airfoil sections exhibited significant reduction in lift and increase in drag for a given lift condition in simulated rain. The most significant difference between these two airfoils was the sensitivity of the NACA 64-210 to liquid water content (LWC), while NACA 0012 performance losses in the rain environment is not a function of LWC . It is expected that the quantitative information gained in this paper will be useful to the operational airline industry and greater effort such as small scale and full scale flight tests should put in this direction to further improve aviation safety.

Keywords: Airfoil, Reynolds number, discrete phase modeling, heavy rain

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3195
5 Port Positions on the Mixing Efficiency of a Rotor-Type Mixer – A Numerical Study

Authors: Y. C. Liou, J. M. Miao, T. L. Liu, M. H. Ho

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the complex flow structure a novel active-type micromixer that based on concept of Wankle-type rotor. The characteristics of this micromixer are two folds; a rapid mixing of reagents in a limited space due to the generation of multiple vortices and a graduate increment in dynamic pressure as the mixed reagents is delivered to the output ports. Present micro-mixer is consisted of a rotor with shape of triangle column, a blending chamber and several inlet and outlet ports. The geometry of blending chamber is designed to make the rotor can be freely internal rotated with a constant eccentricity ratio. When the shape of the blending chamber and the rotor are fixed, the effects of rotating speed of rotor and the relative locations of ports on the mixing efficiency are numerical studied. The governing equations are unsteady, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and the working fluid is the water. The species concentration equation is also solved to reveal the mass transfer process of reagents in various regions then to evaluate the mixing efficiency. The dynamic mesh technique was implemented to model the dynamic volume shrinkage and expansion of three individual sub-regions of blending chamber when the rotor conducted a complete rotating cycle. Six types of ports configuration on the mixing efficiency are considered in a range of Reynolds number from 10 to 300. The rapid mixing process was accomplished with the multiple vortex structures within a tiny space due to the equilibrium of shear force, viscous force and inertial force. Results showed that the highest mixing efficiency could be attained in the following conditions: two inlet and two outlet ports configuration, that is an included angle of 60 degrees between two inlets and an included angle of 120 degrees between inlet and outlet ports when Re=10.

Keywords: CFD, Reynolds number, mixing efficiency, active micro-mixer, ports configuration, Wankle-type rotor

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1311
4 Experimental Investigation of the Transient Cooling Characteristics of an Industrial Glass Tempering Unit

Authors: Hilmi Yazici, Mehmet Akcay, Mustafa Golcu, Mehmet F. Koseoglu, Yakup Sekmen

Abstract:

Energy consumption rate during the cooling process of industrial glass tempering process is considerably high. In this experimental study the effect of dimensionless jet to jet distance (S/D) and jet to plate distance (H/D) on the cooling time have been investigated. In the experiments 4 mm thick glass samples have been used. Cooling unit consists of 16 mutually placed seamless aluminum nozzles of 8 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length. Nozzles were in staggered arrangement. Experiments were conducted with circular jets for H/D values between 1 and 10, and for S/D values between 2 and 10. During the experiments Reynolds number has been kept constant at 30000. Experimental results showed that the longest cooling time with 87 seconds has been observed in the experiments for S/D=10 and H/D=10 values, while the shortest cooling time with 42.5 seconds has been measured in the experiments for S/D=2 and H/D=4 values.

Keywords: Cooling, Reynolds number, nozzle, Glass tempering

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1439
3 Steady State Transpiration Cooling System in Ni-Cr Open-Cellular Porous Plate

Authors: B. Krittacom, P. Amatachaya, P. Khantikomol, R. Sangchot

Abstract:

The steady-state temperature for one-dimensional transpiration cooling system has been conducted experimentally and numerically to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of combined convection and radiation. The Nickel –Chrome (Ni-Cr) open-cellular porous material having porosity of 0.93 and pores per inch (PPI) of 21.5 was examined. The upper surface of porous plate was heated by the heat flux of incoming radiation varying from 7.7 - 16.6 kW/m2 whereas air injection velocity fed into the lower surface was varied from 0.36 - 1.27 m/s, and was then rearranged as Reynolds number (Re). For the report of the results in the present study, two efficiencies including of temperature and conversion efficiency were presented. Temperature efficiency indicating how close the mean temperature of a porous heat plate to that of inlet air, and increased rapidly with the air injection velocity (Re). It was then saturated and had a constant value at Re higher than 10. The conversion efficiency, which was regarded as the ability of porous material in transferring energy by convection after absorbed from heat radiation, decreased with increasing of the heat flux and air injection velocity. In addition, it was then asymptotic to a constant value at the Re higher than 10. The numerical predictions also agreed with experimental data very well.

Keywords: Radiation, Convection, Reynolds number, open-cellular, transpiration cooling

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1263
2 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows

Authors: Yan Su, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Abstract:

The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.

Keywords: Reynolds number, nusselt number, Keulegan-Carpenter number, Oscillating pipe flows

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2018
1 Use of Heliox during Spontaneous Ventilation: Model Study

Authors: Martin Rozanek, Karel Roubik

Abstract:

The study deals with the modelling of the gas flow during heliox therapy. A special model has been developed to study the effect of the helium upon the gas flow in the airways during the spontaneous breathing. Lower density of helium compared with air decreases the Reynolds number and it allows improving the flow during the spontaneous breathing. In the cases, where the flow becomes turbulent while the patient inspires air the flow is still laminar when the patient inspires heliox. The use of heliox decreases the work of breathing and improves ventilation. It allows in some cases to prevent the intubation of the patients.

Keywords: Turbulent Flow, Reynolds number, gas flow, heliox

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1178