Assist. Prof. Dr. Amit Kumar

University: Dayal Bagh Educational Institute
Department: Department of Computer Science
Research Fields: Image Processing

Publications

8 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: Image Processing, Detection, Interpolation, OMR, binary thresholding, hough circle transform

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7 Female Work Force Participation and Women Empowerment in Haryana

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ambarish Kumar Rai, Dinabandhu Mahata

Abstract:

India is known as a country of diversity regarding the social, cultural and wide geographical variations. In the north and north-west part of the country, the strong patriarchal norms and the male dominance based social structure are the important constructs. Patriarchal social setup adversely affects the women’s social and economic wellbeing and hence in that social structure women are considered as second level citizen. Work participation rate of women has directly linked to the development of society or household. Haryana is one of the developed states of India, still being ahead in economic prosperity, much lagged behind in gender-based equality and male dominance in all dimensions of life. The position of women in the Haryana is no better than the other states of India. Haryana state has the great difference among the male-female sex ratio which is a serious concern for social science research as a demographic problem for the state. Now women are requiring for their holistic empowerment and that will take care of them for an enabling process that must lead to their economic as well as social transformation. Hence, the objective of the paper is to address the role of sex ratio, women literacy and her work participation in the process of their empowerment with special attention to the gender perspective. The study used the data from Census of India from 1991 to 2011. This paper will examine the regional disparity of sex ratio, literacy rate and female work participation and the improvement of empowerment of women in the state of Haryana. This paper will suggest the idea for focusing much intensively on the issues of women empowerment through enhancement of her education, workforce participation and social participation with people participation and holistic approach.

Keywords: Women Empowerment, Haryana, sex ratio, literacy rate, workforce participation rate

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6 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Amit Kumar, Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: Co2 Emissions, CO2 mitigation, solar water heating system, natural gas consumption, tankless water heater

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5 Extended Release System of Hypoglycemic Agent Containing Solid Dispersions: Strategies and Mechanisms

Authors: Amit Kumar, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush Sharma, Ramendeep Grawal, Dinesh Puri

Abstract:

The main perspective of the present study aims at overcoming solubility problems by using the technique of solid dispersion. Repaglinide is a BCS Class II drug, having low aqueous solubility and therefore, low bioavailability. Solid dispersions of repaglinide with different carriers Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) in different ratios were prepared by suspending method and Dissolving methods. In vitro release studies revealed that the F7 formulation showed extended drug release. So, the dissolution profile of solid dispersion containing EC and PVP K30 (1: 3) was selected as the best formulation because of its extended drug release among all formulations. In conclusion, solid dispersions of Repaglinide in PVP have shown to be a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of Repaglinide.

Keywords: ethyl cellulose, solid dispersion, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Repaglinide

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4 Effect of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl Cellulose Concentration on Release Profile and Kinetics of Glibenclamide Extended Release Dosage Form System

Authors: Amit Kumar, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush Sharma

Abstract:

The aim of present work was to optimize the effect of Ethyl Cellulose (EC) and Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) concentration in extended release solid dispersion of Glibenclamide using combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers such as Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The advantage of solid dispersion technique provides a unique approach to particle size reduction and increased rates of dissolution. The compatibility studies of the drug and polymers were studied by TLC and results suggested no interaction between drug and polymers. Solid dispersions of Glibenclamide were prepared by common solvent evaporation method using Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone and Ethyl cellulose. The results indicated that homogeneous or heterogeneous conditions during the preparation methods employed governed the internal structures of the polymer matrices while retaining the drug in an amorphous form. F2 formulation prepared by solid dispersion method, displayed extended drug release followed by Higuchi matrix model indicating diffusion release of GLB from polymer matrices.

Keywords: ethyl cellulose, solid dispersion, Glibenclamide, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone

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3 Solution of Fuzzy Maximal Flow Problems Using Fuzzy Linear Programming

Authors: Amit Kumar, Manjot Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, the fuzzy linear programming formulation of fuzzy maximal flow problems are proposed and on the basis of the proposed formulation a method is proposed to find the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy maximal flow problems. In the proposed method all the parameters are represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. By using the proposed method the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy maximal flow problems can be easily obtained. To illustrate the proposed method a numerical example is solved and the obtained results are discussed.

Keywords: fuzzy linear programming, triangular fuzzy number, ranking function, Fuzzy maximal flow problem

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2 A New Approach For Ranking Of Generalized Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Pushpinder Singh, Amit Kumar, Amarpreet Kaur, Parampreet Kaur

Abstract:

Ranking of fuzzy numbers play an important role in decision making, optimization, forecasting etc. Fuzzy numbers must be ranked before an action is taken by a decision maker. In this paper, with the help of several counter examples it is proved that ranking method proposed by Chen and Chen (Expert Systems with Applications 36 (2009) 6833-6842) is incorrect. The main aim of this paper is to propose a new approach for the ranking of generalized trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. The main advantage of the proposed approach is that the proposed approach provide the correct ordering of generalized and normal trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and also the proposed approach is very simple and easy to apply in the real life problems. It is shown that proposed ranking function satisfies all the reasonable properties of fuzzy quantities proposed by Wang and Kerre (Fuzzy Sets and Systems 118 (2001) 375-385).

Keywords: ranking function, Generalized trapezoidal fuzzy numbers

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1 Method for Solving Fully Fuzzy Assignment Problems Using Triangular Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Amit Kumar, Anila Gupta, Amarpreet Kaur

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method is proposed to find the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy assignment problems by representing all the parameters as triangular fuzzy numbers. The advantages of the pro-posed method are also discussed. To illustrate the proposed method a fuzzy assignment problem is solved by using the proposed method and the obtained results are discussed. The proposed method is easy to understand and to apply for finding the fuzzy optimal solution of fuzzy assignment problems occurring in real life situations.

Keywords: triangular fuzzy numbers, ranking function, Fuzzy assignment problem

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Abstracts

15 Macrocycles Enable Tuning of Uranyl Electrochemistry by Lewis Acids

Authors: Amit Kumar, Davide Lionetti, Victor Day, James Blakemore

Abstract:

Capture and activation of the water-soluble uranyl dication (UO22+) remains a challenging problem, as few rational approaches are available for modulating the reactivity of this species. Here, we report the divergent synthesis of heterobimetallic complexes in which UO22+ is held in close proximity to a range of redox-inactive metals by tailored macrocyclic ligands. Crystallographic and spectroscopic studies confirm assembly of homologous UVI(μ-OAr)2Mn+ cores with a range of mono-, di-, and trivalent Lewis acids (Mn+). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) data suggest preferential binding of K+ in an 18-crown-6-like cavity and Na+ in a 15-crown-5-like cavity, both appended to Schiff-base type sites that selectively bind UO22+. CV data demonstrate that the UVI/UV reduction potential in these complexes shifts positive and the rate of electron transfer decreases with increasing Lewis acidity of the incorporated redox-inactive metals. Moreover, spectroelectrochemical studies confirm the formation of [UV] species in the case of monometallic UO22+ complex, consistent with results from prior studies. However, unique features were observed during spectroelectrochemical studies in the presence of the K+ ion, suggesting new insights into electronic structure may be accessible with the heterobimetallic complexes. Overall, these findings suggest that interactions with Lewis acids could be effectively leveraged for rational tuning of the electronic and thermochemical properties of the 5f elements, reminiscent of strategies more commonly employed with 3d transition metals.

Keywords: Electrochemistry, Lewis acid, macrocycle, uranyl

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14 Chemical Modifications of Carotol and Their Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Amit Kumar, Dalvir Kataria, Khushminder Kaur Chahal

Abstract:

The carrot seed essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol solvents were used for extraction of carrot seed by Soxhlet extraction methods. The major and minor compounds identified in carrot seed essential oil were carotol (52.73), daucol (5.10), daucene (5.68), (E)-β-farnesene (5.40), β-cubebene (3.19), longifolenaldehyde (3.23), β-elimene (3.23), (E)-caryophyllene (1.22), β-bisabolene (2.95) etc. The chemical composition of hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts was different. Carotol was the common compound present. Major compounds isolated were from the carrot seed essential oil by column chromatography. Chemical transformations of carotol (2) with mercuric acetate/sodium borohydride, dry hydrochloric acid gas, acetonitrile/sulfuric acid, selenium dioxide/t-butyl hydrogen peroxide, N-bromosuccinimide, hydrogen iodide, and phenol were carried out. The derivatives of carotol were designed to explore the significance of some structural modifications in relation to antioxidant activities. The structures of major compounds and derivatives were confirmed on the basis of FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity of carrot seed essential oil, various extracts and isolated compounds were tested by in vitro models involving 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), hydroxyl (OH•), nitric oxide (NO•), superoxide radical scavenging methods and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Chemical transformations of major isolated compound carotol were carried out, and antioxidant activity of all compounds was undertaken. The major sesquiterpenoidcarotol isolated from carrot seed essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in all the methods. The methanol extract showed higher antioxidant potential as compared to carrot seed essential oil, hexane, and dichloromethane extracts.

Keywords: DPPH, antioxidant, carotol, carrot

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13 Role of Onion Extract for Neuro-Protection in Experimental Stroke Model

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ravinder Kaur, Rahul Kumar, Varinder Singh, Richa Shri, Kundan Singh Bora, Abhishek Bhanot

Abstract:

The term ‘neuroprotection’ means preserving/salvaging function and structure of neurons. Neuroprotection is an adjunctive treatment option for neurodegenerative disorders. Oxidative stress is considered a major culprit in neurodegenerative disorders; hence, management strategies include use of antioxidants. Our search for a neuroprotective agent began with Allium cepa L. or onions, (family Amaryllidaceae) - a potent antioxidant. We have investigated the neuroprotective potential of onions in experimental models of ischemic stroke, diabetic neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and dementia. In pre and post-ischemic stroke model, the methanol extract of outer scales of onion bulbs (MEOS) prevented memory loss and motor in-coordination; reduced oxidative stress and cerebral infarct size. This also prevented and ameliorated diabetic neuropathy in mice. The MEOS was fractionated to yield a flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) that successfully reversed ischemia-reperfusion induced neuronal damage, thereby demonstrating that the flavonoids are responsible for the activity. The FRF effectively ameliorated chronic constriction induced neuropathic pain in rats. The FRF was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionated. It was seen that FRF is more effective as compared to the isolated components probably due to synergism among the constituents (i.e., quercetin and quercetin glucosides) in the FRF. The outer scales of onion bulbs have great potential for prevention as well as for treatment of neuronal disorders. Red onions, with higher amounts of flavonoids as compared to the white onions, produced more significant neuroprotection. Thus, the standardized FRF from the waste material of a commonly used vegetable, especially the red variety, may be developed as a valuable neuroprotective agent.

Keywords: Neuroprotection, antioxidant activity, Allium cepa, flavonoid rich fraction

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12 Nanopriming Potential of Metal Nanoparticles against Internally Seed Borne Pathogen Ustilago triciti

Authors: Amit Kumar, Anju Bala, Anjali Sidhu

Abstract:

Metal nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize the agriculture owing to sizzling interdisciplinary nano-technological application domain. Numerous patents and products incorporating engineered nanoparticles (NPs) entered into agro-applications with the collective goal to promote proficiency as well as sustainability with lower input and generating meager waste than conventional products and approaches. Loose smut of wheat caused by Ustilago segetum tritici is an internally seed-borne pathogen. It is dormant in the seed unless the seed germinates and its symptoms are expressed at the reproductive stage of the plant only. Various seed treatment agents are recommended for this disease but due to the inappropriate methods of seed treatments used by farmers, each and every seed may not get treated, and the infected seeds escape the fungicidal action. The antimicrobial potential and small size of nanoparticles made them the material of choice as they could enter each seed and restrict the pathogen inside the seed due to the availability of more number of nanoparticles per unit volume of the nanoformulations. Nanoparticles of diverse nature known for their in vitro antimicrobial activity viz. ZnO, MgO, CuS and AgNPs were synthesized, surface modified and characterized by traditional methods. They were applied on infected wheat seeds which were then grown in pot conditions, and their mycelium was tracked in the shoot and leaf region of the seedlings by microscopic staining techniques. Mixed responses of inhibition of this internal mycelium were observed. The time and method of application concluded to be critical for application, which was optimised in the present work. The results implicated that there should be field trails to get final fate of these pot trails up to commercial level. The success of their field trials could be interpreted as a revolution to replace high dose organic fungicides of high residue behaviour.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, nanopriming, seed borne pathogen, Ustilago segetum tritici

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11 The Impact of Missense Mutation in Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Class A Associated to Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 2: A Computational Study

Authors: Amit Kumar, Ashish Kumar Agrahari

Abstract:

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal blood disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The disease is caused by the deficiency of two glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI)-anchored proteins (CD55 and CD59) in the hemopoietic stem cells. The deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins has been associated with the somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA). However, the mutations that do not cause PNH is associated with the multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2). To best of our knowledge, no computational study has been performed to explore the atomistic level impact of PIGA mutations on the structure and dynamics of the protein. In the current work, we are mainly interested to get insights into the molecular mechanism of PIGA mutations. In the initial step, we screened the most pathogenic mutations from the pool of publicly available mutations. Further, to get a better understanding, pathogenic mutations were mapped to the modeled structure and subjected to 50ns molecular dynamics simulation. Our computational study suggests that four mutations are highly vulnerable to altering the structural conformation and stability of the PIGA protein, which illustrates its association with PNH and MCAHS2 phenotype.

Keywords: Homology Modeling, molecular dynamics simulation, missense mutations PNH, MCAHS2, PIGA

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10 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: Image Processing, Detection, Interpolation, OMR, hough circle trans-form, binary thresholding

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9 Practical Model of Regenerative Braking Using DC Machine and Boost Converter

Authors: Amit Kumar, Shah Krupa Rajendra

Abstract:

Increasing use of traditional vehicles driven by internal combustion engine is responsible for the environmental pollution. Further, it leads to depletion of limited energy resources. Therefore, it is required to explore alternative energy sources for the transportation. The promising solution is to use electric vehicle. However, it suffers from limited driving range. Regenerative braking increases the range of the electric vehicle to a certain extent. In this paper, a novel methodology utilizing regenerative braking is described. The model comprising of DC machine, feedback based boost converter and micro-controller is proposed. The suggested method is very simple and reliable. The proposed model successfully shows the energy being saved into during regenerative braking process.

Keywords: Electric Vehicle, boost converter, regenerative braking, DC machine, micro-controller

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8 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Amit Kumar, Vidhula Ahire, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni

Abstract:

Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: Radiation therapy, Cervical Cancer, Sensitization, ellagic acid

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7 Numerical Simulation of Air Pollutant Using Coupled AERMOD-WRF Modeling System over Visakhapatnam: A Case Study

Authors: Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Accurate identification of deteriorated air quality regions is very helpful in devising better environmental practices and mitigation efforts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the air pollutant dispersion patterns especially NOX due to vehicular and industrial sources over a rapidly developing urban city, Visakhapatnam (17°42’ N, 83°20’ E), India, during April 2009. Using the emission factors of different vehicles as well as the industry, a high resolution 1 km x 1 km gridded emission inventory has been developed for Visakhapatnam city. A dispersion model AERMOD with explicit representation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics and offline coupled through a developed coupler mechanism with a high resolution mesoscale model WRF-ARW resolution for simulating the dispersion patterns of NOX is used in the work. The meteorological as well as PBL parameters obtained by employing two PBL schemes viz., non-local Yonsei University (YSU) and local Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) of WRF-ARW model, which are reasonably representing the boundary layer parameters are considered for integrating AERMOD. Significantly different dispersion patterns of NOX have been noticed between summer and winter months. The simulated NOX concentration is validated with available six monitoring stations of Central Pollution Control Board, India. Statistical analysis of model evaluated concentrations with the observations reveals that WRF-ARW of YSU scheme with AERMOD has shown better performance. The deteriorated air quality locations are identified over Visakhapatnam based on the validated model simulations of NOX concentrations. The present study advocates the utility of tNumerical Simulation of Air Pollutant Using Coupled AERMOD-WRF Modeling System over Visakhapatnam: A Case Studyhe developed gridded emission inventory of NOX with coupled WRF-AERMOD modeling system for air quality assessment over the study region.

Keywords: Air quality, Planetary Boundary Layer, WRF-ARW, AERMOD

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6 Vibrational Spectra and Nonlinear Optical Investigations of a Chalcone Derivative (2e)-3-[4-(Methylsulfanyl) Phenyl]-1-(3-Bromophenyl) Prop-2-En-1-One

Authors: Amit Kumar, Poonam Tandon, Archana Gupta, E. D. D’Silva

Abstract:

Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are the key materials for the fast processing of information and optical data storage applications. In the last decade, materials showing nonlinear optical properties have been the object of increasing attention by both experimental and computational points of view. Chalcones are one of the most important classes of cross conjugated NLO chromophores that are reported to exhibit good SHG efficiency, ultra fast optical nonlinearities and are easily crystallizable. The basic structure of chalcones is based on the π-conjugated system in which two aromatic rings are connected by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to the overlap of π orbitals, delocalization of electronic charge distribution leads to a high mobility of the electron density. On a molecular scale, the extent of charge transfer across the NLO chromophore determines the level of SHG output. Hence, the functionalization of both ends of the π-bond system with appropriate electron donor and acceptor groups can enhance the asymmetric electronic distribution in either or both ground and excited states, leading to an increased optical nonlinearity. In this research, the experimental and theoretical study on the structure and vibrations of (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(3-bromophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (3Br4MSP) is presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the NLO material in the solid phase have been recorded. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were carried out to study the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared absorbance and Raman scattering activities. The interpretation of vibrational features (normal mode assignments, for instance) has an invaluable aid from DFT calculations that provide a quantum-mechanical description of the electronic energies and forces involved. Perturbation theory allows one to obtain the vibrational normal modes by estimating the derivatives of the Kohn−Sham energy with respect to atomic displacements. The molecular hyperpolarizability β plays a chief role in the NLO properties, and a systematical study on β has been carried out. Furthermore, the first order hyperpolarizability (β) and the related properties such as dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (α) of the title molecule are evaluated by Finite Field (FF) approach. The electronic α and β of the studied molecule are 41.907×10-24 and 79.035×10-24 e.s.u. respectively, indicating that 3Br4MSP can be used as a good nonlinear optical material.

Keywords: dft, NLO, MEP, vibrational spectra

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5 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Amit Kumar, Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: Co2 Emissions, CO2 mitigation, solar water heating system, natural gas consumption

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4 Development of Market Penetration for High Energy Efficiency Technologies in Alberta’s Residential Sector

Authors: Amit Kumar, Saeidreza Radpour, Md. Alam Mondal

Abstract:

Market penetration of high energy efficiency technologies has key impacts on energy consumption and GHG mitigation. Also, it will be useful to manage the policies formulated by public or private organizations to achieve energy or environmental targets. Energy intensity in residential sector of Alberta was 148.8 GJ per household in 2012 which is 39% more than the average of Canada 106.6 GJ, it was the highest amount among the provinces on per household energy consumption. Energy intensity by appliances of Alberta was 15.3 GJ per household in 2012 which is 14% higher than average value of other provinces and territories in energy demand intensity by appliances in Canada. In this research, a framework has been developed to analyze the market penetration and market share of high energy efficiency technologies in residential sector. The overall methodology was based on development of data-intensive models’ estimation of the market penetration of the appliances in the residential sector over a time period. The developed models were a function of a number of macroeconomic and technical parameters. Developed mathematical equations were developed based on twenty-two years of historical data (1990-2011). The models were analyzed through a series of statistical tests. The market shares of high efficiency appliances were estimated based on the related variables such as capital and operating costs, discount rate, appliance’s life time, annual interest rate, incentives and maximum achievable efficiency in the period of 2015 to 2050. Results show that the market penetration of refrigerators is higher than that of other appliances. The stocks of refrigerators per household are anticipated to increase from 1.28 in 2012 to 1.314 and 1.328 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. Modelling results show that the market penetration rate of stand-alone freezers will decrease between 2012 and 2050. Freezer stock per household will decline from 0.634 in 2012 to 0.556 and 0.515 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The stock of dishwashers per household is expected to increase from 0.761 in 2012 to 0.865 and 0.960 in 2030 and 2050, respectively. The increase in the market penetration rate of clothes washers and clothes dryers is nearly parallel. The stock of clothes washers and clothes dryers per household is expected to rise from 0.893 and 0.979 in 2012 to 0.960 and 1.0 in 2050, respectively. This proposed presentation will include detailed discussion on the modelling methodology and results.

Keywords: residential sector, appliances efficiency improvement, market penetration, energy star

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3 Development of a Framework for Assessment of Market Penetration of Oil Sands Energy Technologies in Mining Sector

Authors: Amit Kumar, Saeidreza Radpour, Md. Ahiduzzaman

Abstract:

Alberta’s mining sector consumed 871.3 PJ in 2012, which is 67.1% of the energy consumed in the industry sector and about 40% of all the energy consumed in the province of Alberta. Natural gas, petroleum products, and electricity supplied 55.9%, 20.8%, and 7.7%, respectively, of the total energy use in this sector. Oil sands mining and upgrading to crude oil make up most of the mining energy sector activities in Alberta. Crude oil is produced from the oil sands either by in situ methods or by the mining and extraction of bitumen from oil sands ore. In this research, the factors affecting oil sands production have been assessed and a framework has been developed for market penetration of new efficient technologies in this sector. Oil sands production amount is a complex function of many different factors, broadly categorized into technical, economic, political, and global clusters. The results of developed and implemented statistical analysis in this research show that the importance of key factors affecting on oil sands production in Alberta is ranked as: Global energy consumption (94% consistency), Global crude oil price (86% consistency), and Crude oil export (80% consistency). A framework for modeling oil sands energy technologies’ market penetration (OSETMP) has been developed to cover related technical, economic and environmental factors in this sector. It has been assumed that the impact of political and social constraints is reflected in the model by changes of global oil price or crude oil price in Canada. The market share of novel in situ mining technologies with low energy and water use are assessed and calculated in the market penetration framework include: 1) Partial upgrading, 2) Liquid addition to steam to enhance recovery (LASER), 3) Solvent-assisted process (SAP), also called solvent-cyclic steam-assisted gravity drainage (SC-SAGD), 4) Cyclic solvent, 5) Heated solvent, 6) Wedge well, 7) Enhanced modified steam and Gas push (emsagp), 8) Electro-thermal dynamic stripping process (ET-DSP), 9) Harris electro-magnetic heating applications (EMHA), 10) Paraffin froth separation. The results of the study will show the penetration profile of these technologies over a long term planning horizon.

Keywords: residential sector, appliances efficiency improvement, diffusion models, market penetration

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2 Development of a Comprehensive Energy Model for Canada

Authors: Amit Kumar, Matthew B. Davis

Abstract:

With potentially dangerous impacts of climate change on the horizon, Canada has an opportunity to take a lead role on the international stage to demonstrate how energy use intensity and greenhouse gas emission intensity may be effectively reduced. Through bottom-up modelling of Canada’s energy sector using Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) software, it can be determined where efforts should to be concentrated to produce the most positive energy management results. By analyzing a provincially integrated Canada, one can develop strategies to minimize the country’s economic downfall while transitioning to lower-emission energy technologies. Canada’s electricity sector plays an important role in accommodating these transitionary technologies as fossil-fuel based power production is prevalent in many parts of the country and is responsible for a large portion (17%) of Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions. Current findings incorporate an in-depth model of Canada’s current energy supply and demand sectors, as well as a business-as-usual scenario up to the year 2035. This allows for in-depth analysis of energy flow from resource potential, to extraction, to fuel and electricity production, to energy end use and emissions in Canada’s residential, transportation, commercial, institutional, industrial, and agricultural sectors. Bottom-up modelling techniques such as these are useful to critically analyze and compare the various possible scenarios of implementing sustainable energy measures. This work can aid government in creating effective energy and environmental policies, as well as guide industry to what technology or process changes would be most worthwhile to pursue.

Keywords: Energy Management, GHG emissions, LEAP, energy end-use

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1 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: KRISHAN KUMAR, Amit Kumar, Manoj Singh, V. K. Jain, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Monika Punia

Abstract:

Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: Rural, VOCs, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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