M. A. Karim

Publications

2 Performance Evaluation of A Stratified Chilled- Water Thermal Storage System

Authors: M. A. Karim

Abstract:

In countries with hot climates, air-conditioning forms a large proportion of annual peak electrical demand, requiring expansion of power plants to meet the peak demand, which goes unused most of the time. Use of well-designed cool storage can offset the peak demand to a large extent. In this study, an air conditioning system with naturally stratified storage tank was designed, constructed and tested. A new type of diffuser was designed and used in this study. Factors that influence the performance of chilled water storage tanks were investigated. The results indicated that stratified storage tank consistently stratified well without any physical barrier. Investigation also showed that storage efficiency decreased with increasing flow rate due to increased mixing of warm and chilled water. Diffuser design and layout primarily affected the mixing near the inlet diffuser and the extent of this mixing had primary influence on the shape of the thermocline. The heat conduction through tank walls and through the thermocline caused widening of mixed volume. Thermal efficiency of stratified storage tanks was as high as 90 percent, which indicates that stratified tanks can effectively be used as a load management technique.

Keywords: Load Management, efficiency improvement, diffuser, Cool Thermal Storage, Natural Stratification

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1 Investigation into the Bond between CFRP and Steel Plates

Authors: S. Fawzia, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

The use of externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) reinforcement has proven to be an effective technique to strengthen steel structures. An experimental study on CFRP bonded steel plate with double strap joint has been conducted and specimens are tested under tensile loadings. An empirical model has been developed using stress-based approach to predict ultimate capacity of the CFRP bonded steel structure. The results from the model are comparable with the experimental result with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: Steel Structure, shear stress, slip, carbon fibre reinforced polymer, effective bond

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Abstracts

2 Effect of Cellular Water Transport on Deformation of Food Material during Drying

Authors: M. Imran Hossen Khan, M. Mahiuddin, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

Drying is a food processing technique where simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place from surface to the center of the sample. Deformation of food materials during drying is a common physical phenomenon which affects the textural quality and taste of the dried product. Most of the plant-based food materials are porous and hygroscopic in nature that contains about 80-90% water in different cellular environments: intercellular environment and intracellular environment. Transport of this cellular water has a significant effect on material deformation during drying. However, understanding of the scale of deformation is very complex due to diverse nature and structural heterogeneity of food material. Knowledge about the effect of transport of cellular water on deformation of material during drying is crucial for increasing the energy efficiency and obtaining better quality dried foods. Therefore, the primary aim of this work is to investigate the effect of intracellular water transport on material deformation during drying. In this study, apple tissue was taken for the investigation. The experiment was carried out using 1H-NMR T2 relaxometry with a conventional dryer. The experimental results are consistent with the understanding that transport of intracellular water causes cellular shrinkage associated with the anisotropic deformation of whole apple tissue. Interestingly, it is found that the deformation of apple tissue takes place at different stages of drying rather than deforming at one time. Moreover, it is found that the penetration rate of heat energy together with the pressure gradient between intracellular and intercellular environments is the responsible force to rupture the cell membrane.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, deformation, intracellular water, food material, cell rupture

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1 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim

Abstract:

Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.

Keywords: physical property, intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, pear

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