R. Ahmad

Publications

3 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: R. Ahmad, K. Abbas, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: Crystallinity, Nitriding, sputtering, glow discharge

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2 Influence of Laminated Textile Structures on Mechanical Performance of NF-Epoxy Composites

Authors: R. Ahmad, A. R. Azrin Hani, M. Mariatti

Abstract:

Textile structures are engineered and fabricated to meet worldwide structural applications. Nevertheless, research varying textile structure on natural fibre as composite reinforcement was found to be very limited. Most of the research is focusing on short fibre and random discontinuous orientation of the reinforcement structure. Realizing that natural fibre (NF) composite had been widely developed to be used as synthetic fibre composite replacement, this research attempted to examine the influence of woven and cross-ply laminated structure towards its mechanical performances. Laminated natural fibre composites were developed using hand lay-up and vacuum bagging technique. Impact and flexural strength were investigated as a function of fibre type (coir and kenaf) and reinforcement structure (imbalanced plain woven, 0°/90° cross-ply and +45°/-45° cross-ply). Multi-level full factorial design of experiment (DOE) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to impart data as to how fibre type and reinforcement structure parameters affect the mechanical properties of the composites. This systematic experimentation has led to determination of significant factors that predominant influences the impact and flexural properties of the textile composites. It was proven that both fibre type and reinforcement structure demonstrated significant difference results. Overall results indicated that coir composite and woven structure exhibited better impact and flexural strength. Yet, cross-ply composite structure demonstrated better fracture resistance.

Keywords: flexural strength, impact strength, woven composite, Cross-ply composite, Textile natural fibre composite

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1 Free-Form Query for Cell Phones

Authors: R. Ahmad, S. Abdul-Kareem

Abstract:

It is a challenge to provide a wide range of queries to database query systems for small mobile devices, such as the PDAs and cell phones. Currently, due to the physical and resource limitations of these devices, most reported database querying systems developed for them are only offering a small set of pre-determined queries for users to possibly pose. The above can be resolved by allowing free-form queries to be entered on the devices. Hence, a query language that does not restrict the combination of query terms entered by users is proposed. This paper presents the free-form query language and the method used in translating free-form queries to their equivalent SQL statements.

Keywords: cell phone, database query language, free-formqueries, unplanned queries

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Abstracts

2 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: R. Ahmad, K. Abbas, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: Crystallinity, Nitriding, sputtering, glow discharge

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1 Study of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Locally Developed Carbon Fibers-Silica Sand Nanoparticles Aluminium Based Hybrid Composites

Authors: R. Ahmad, Tahir Ahmad, M. T. Z. Butt, M. Kamran

Abstract:

Hybrid aluminum metal matrix composites with 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt. % of silica sand nanoparticles and electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers were successfully developed using sand casting technique. Epoxy coating of carbon fibers was removed and phosphorous-nickel coating was successfully applied via electro-less route. The developed hybrid composites were characterized using micro hardness tester, tensile testing, and optical microscopy. The gradual increase of reinforcing phases yielded improved mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength. The increase in hardness was attributed to the presence of silica sand nanoparticles whereas electro-less nickel coated carbon fibers enhanced the tensile properties of developed hybrid composites. The microstructure of the developed hybrid composites revealed the homogeneous distribution of both carbon fibers and silica sand nanoparticles in aluminum based hybrid composites. The formation of dendrite microstructure is the main cause of improving mechanical properties.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, aluminum based hybrid composites, microstructure and mechanical properties relationship

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