Prof. Dr. Ahmed H. Elkholy

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering
University: Kuwait University
Department: Department of Mechanical Engineering
Research Fields: gear, load/stress distribution, worm, wheel, tooth stiffness, contact line,


1 Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, A. H. Falah


A new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and distribution of worm gear drives, and to calculate the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness. In the approach, the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using the well-established formulae of spur gear loading and stresses. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. Based on the slicing method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share are obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: Gear, wheel, worm, load/stress distribution, contact line, tooth stiffness

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3 Biaxial Fatigue Specimen Design and Testing Rig Development

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


An elastic analysis is developed to obtain the distribution of stresses, strains, bending moment and deformation for a thin hollow, variable thickness cylindrical specimen when subjected to different biaxial loadings. The specimen was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, axial tensile loading and external pressure. Several axial to circumferential stress ratios were investigated in detail. The analytical model was then validated using experimental results obtained from a test rig using several biaxial loadings. Based on the preliminary results obtained, the specimen was then modified geometrically to ensure uniform strain distribution through its wall thickness and along its gauge length. The new design of the specimen has a higher buckling strength and a maximum value of equivalent stress according to the maximum distortion energy theory. A cyclic function generator of the standard servo-controlled, electro-hydraulic testing machine is used to generate a specific signal shape (sine, square,…) at a certain frequency. The two independent controllers of the electronic circuit cause an independent movement to each servo-valve piston. The movement of each piston pressurizes the upper and lower sides of the actuators alternately. So, the specimen will be subjected to axial and diametral loads independent of each other. The hydraulic system has two different pressures: one pressure will be responsible for axial stress produced in the specimen and the other will be responsible for the tangential stress. Changing the two pressure ratios will change the stress ratios accordingly. The only restriction on the maximum stress obtained is the capacity of the testing system and specimen instability due to buckling.

Keywords: Testing, stress, Fatigue, biaxial

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2 Innovative Pump Design Using the Concept of Viscous Fluid Sinusoidal Excitation

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


The concept of applying a prescribed oscillation to viscous fluids to aid or increase flow is used to produce a maintenance free pump. Application of this technique to fluids presents unique problems such as physical separation; control of heat and mass transfer in certain industrial applications; and improvement of some fluid process methods. The problem as stated is to obtain the velocity distribution, wall shear stress and energy expended when a pipe containing a stagnant viscous fluid is externally excited by a sinusoidal pulse, one end of the pipe being pinned. On the other hand, the effect of different parameters on the results are presented. Such parameters include fluid viscosity, frequency of oscillations and pipe geometry. It was found that the flow velocity through the pump is maximum at the pipe wall, and it decreases rapidly towards the pipe centerline. The frequency of oscillation should be above a certain value in order to obtain meaningful flow velocity. The amount of energy absorbed in the system is mainly due to pipe wall strain energy, while the fluid pressure and kinetic energies are comparatively small.

Keywords: Flow, shear stress, pump, sinusoidal excitation

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1 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy


Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: Aircraft Engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

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