Fred Lacy

Publications

2 Understanding the Behavior of Superconductors by Analyzing Permittivity

Authors: Fred Lacy

Abstract:

A superconductor has the ability to conduct electricity perfectly and exclude magnetic fields from its interior. In order to understand electromagnetic characteristics of superconductors, their material properties need to be examined. To facilitate this understanding, a theoretical model based on concepts of electromagnetics is presented to explain the electrical and magnetic properties of superconductors. The permittivity response is the key aspect of the model and it describes the electrical resistance response and why it vanishes at the material’s critical temperature. The model also explains the behavior of magnetic fields and why they cannot exist inside superconducting materials. The theoretical concepts and equations associated with this model are used to demonstrate that they are sufficient in describing the behavior of both type I and type II (or high temperature) superconductors. This model is also able to explain why superconductors behave differently than perfect conductors. As a result, examining the permittivity response and understanding electromagnetic field theory provides insight into the major aspects associated with superconducting materials.

Keywords: Permeability, resistivity, permittivity, Schrödinger wave equation, Ampere’s law

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1 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors

Authors: Fred Lacy

Abstract:

Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).

Keywords: Temperature Sensor, Conductivity, mean free path, Callendar–van Dusen, resistance temperature detector

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