Hong Hao


2 Derivation of Empirical Formulae to Predict Pressure and Impulsive Asymptotes for P-I Diagrams of One-way RC Panels

Authors: Azrul A. Mutalib, Masoud Abedini, Shahrizan Baharom, Hong Hao


There are only limited studies that directly correlate the increase in reinforced concrete (RC) panel structural capacities in resisting the blast loads with different RC panel structural properties in terms of blast loading characteristics, RC panel dimensions, steel reinforcement ratio and concrete material strength. In this paper, numerical analyses of dynamic response and damage of the one-way RC panel to blast loads are carried out using the commercial software LS-DYNA. A series of simulations are performed to predict the blast response and damage of columns with different level and magnitude of blast loads. The numerical results are used to develop pressureimpulse (P-I) diagrams of one-way RC panels. Based on the numerical results, the empirical formulae are derived to calculate the pressure and impulse asymptotes of the P-I diagrams of RC panels. The results presented in this paper can be used to construct P-I diagrams of RC panels with different concrete and reinforcement properties. The P-I diagrams are very useful to assess panel capacities in resisting different blast loads.

Keywords: Numerical, One-way reinforced concrete (RC) panels, Explosive loads, LS-DYNA Software, Pressure-Impulse (P-I) diagram

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1 Reliability Analysis of P-I Diagram Formula for RC Column Subjected to Blast Load

Authors: Azrul A. Mutalib, Masoud Abedini, Shahrizan Baharom, Hong Hao


This study was conducted published to investigate there liability of the equation pressure-impulse (PI) reinforced concrete column inprevious studies. Equation involves three different levels of damage criteria known as D =0. 2, D =0. 5 and D =0. 8.The damage criteria known as a minor when 0-0.2, 0.2-0.5is known as moderate damage, high damage known as 0.5-0.8, and 0.8-1 of the structure is considered a failure. In this study, two types of reliability analyzes conducted. First, using pressure-impulse equation with different parameters. The parameters involved are the concrete strength, depth, width, and height column, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement and transverse reinforcement ratio. In the first analysis of the reliability of this new equation is derived to improve the previous equations. The second reliability analysis involves three types of columns used to derive the PI curve diagram using the derived equation to compare with the equation derived from other researchers and graph minimum standoff versus weapon yield Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The results showed that the derived equation is more accurate with FEMA standards than previous researchers.

Keywords: RC column, blast load, P-I curve, Analytical formulae, Standard FEMA

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2 Internal and External Overpressure Calculation for Vented Gas Explosion by Using a Combined Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Authors: Hong Hao, Jingde Li


Recent oil and gas accidents have reminded us the severe consequences of gas explosion on structure damage and financial loss. In order to protect the structures and personnel, engineers and researchers have been working on numerous different explosion mitigation methods. Amongst, venting is the most economical approach to mitigate gas explosion overpressure. In this paper, venting is used as the overpressure alleviation method. A theoretical method and a numerical technique are presented to predict the internal and external pressure from vented gas explosion in a large enclosure. Under idealized conditions, a number of experiments are used to calibrate the accuracy of the theoretically calculated data. A good agreement between the theoretical results and experimental data is seen. However, for realistic scenarios, the theoretical method over-estimates internal pressures and is incapable of predicting external pressures. Therefore, a CFD simulation procedure is proposed in this study to estimate both the internal and external overpressure from a large-scale vented explosion. Satisfactory agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental data is achieved.

Keywords: CFD simulation, internal pressure, external pressure, Ansys fluent, vented gas explosion, FLACS

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1 Characterization of N+C, Ti+N and Ti+C Ion Implantation into Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Hong Hao, Jun Zheng, Hui Zhou, Kaifeng Zhang, Xingguo Feng, Zhao Jiang, Hanjun Hu


TiN and TiC films have been prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates by plasma-based ion implantation. The effect of N+C and Ti+N hybrid ion implantation at 50 kV, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation at 20 kV, 35 kV and 50 kV extraction voltages on mechanical properties at a dose of 2×10¹⁷ ions / cm² was studied. The chemical states and microstructures of the implanted samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized using nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the modified layer by Ti+C implanted at 50 kV was composed of mainly TiC and Ti-O bond and the layer of Ti+N implanted at 50 kV was observed to be TiN and Ti-O bond. Hardness tests have shown that the hardness values for N+C, Ti+N, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation samples were much higher than the un-implanted ones. The results of wear tests showed that both Ti+C and Ti+N ion implanted samples had much better wear resistance compared un-implanted sample. The wear rate of Ti+C implanted at 50 kV sample was 6.7×10⁻⁵mm³ / N.m, which was decreased over one order than unimplanted samples.

Keywords: Hardness, Wear, plasma ion implantation, x-ray photoelectron (XPS)

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