Arvind Singh

Publications

2 Multi-Objective Optimization in End Milling of Al-6061 Using Taguchi Based G-PCA

Authors: M. K. Pradhan, Mayank Meena, Shubham Sen, Arvind Singh

Abstract:

In this study, a multi objective optimization for end milling of Al 6061 alloy has been presented to provide better surface quality and higher Material Removal Rate (MRR). The input parameters considered for the analysis are spindle speed, depth of cut and feed. The experiments were planned as per Taguchis design of experiment, with L27 orthogonal array. The Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) has been used for transforming multiple quality responses into a single response and the weights of the each performance characteristics are determined by employing the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), so that their relative importance can be properly and objectively described. The results reveal that Taguchi based G-PCA can effectively acquire the optimal combination of cutting parameters.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, surface roughness, material removal rate, grey relational analysis, Taguchi Method

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1 Formation of (Ga,Mn)N Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor by Manganese Ion Implantation

Authors: N.S. Pradhan, S.K. Dubey, A. D.Yadav, Arvind Singh, D.C. Kothari

Abstract:

Un-doped GaN film of thickness 1.90 mm, grown on sapphire substrate were uniformly implanted with 325 keV Mn+ ions for various fluences varying from 1.75 x 1015 - 2.0 x 1016 ions cm-2 at 3500 C substrate temperature. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Mn ion implanted gallium nitride samples were studied using XRD, AFM and SQUID techniques. XRD of the sample implanted with various ion fluences showed the presence of different magnetic phases of Ga3Mn, Ga0.6Mn0.4 and Mn4N. However, the compositions of these phases were found to be depended on the ion fluence. AFM images of non-implanted sample showed micrograph with rms surface roughness 2.17 nm. Whereas samples implanted with the various fluences showed the presence of nano clusters on the surface of GaN. The shape, size and density of the clusters were found to vary with respect to ion fluence. Magnetic moment versus applied field curves of the samples implanted with various fluences exhibit the hysteresis loops. The Curie temperature estimated from zero field cooled and field cooled curves for the samples implanted with the fluence of 1.75 x 1015, 1.5 x 1016 and 2.0 x 1016 ions cm-2 was found to be 309 K, 342 K and 350 K respectively.

Keywords: Ion implantation, gan, XRD, AFM, SQUID

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Abstracts

1 Finite Element Modeling of Aortic Intramural Haematoma Shows Size Matters

Authors: Aihong Zhao, Priya Sastry, Mark L Field, Mohamad Bashir, Arvind Singh, David Richens

Abstract:

Objectives: Intramural haematoma (IMH) is one of the pathologies, along with acute aortic dissection, that present as Acute Aortic Syndrome (AAS). Evidence suggests that unlike aortic dissection, some intramural haematomas may regress with medical management. However, intramural haematomas have been traditionally managed like acute aortic dissections. Given that some of these pathologies may regress with conservative management, it would be useful to be able to identify which of these may not need high risk emergency intervention. A computational aortic model was used in this study to try and identify intramural haematomas with risk of progression to aortic dissection. Methods: We created a computational model of the aorta with luminal blood flow. Reports in the literature have identified 11 mm as the radial clot thickness that is associated with heightened risk of progression of intramural haematoma. Accordingly, haematomas of varying sizes were implanted in the modeled aortic wall to test this hypothesis. The model was exposed to physiological blood flows and the stresses and strains in each layer of the aortic wall were recorded. Results: Size and shape of clot were seen to affect the magnitude of aortic stresses. The greatest stresses and strains were recorded in the intima of the model. When the haematoma exceeded 10 mm in all dimensions, the stress on the intima reached breaking point. Conclusion: Intramural clot size appears to be a contributory factor affecting aortic wall stress. Our computer simulation corroborates clinical evidence in the literature proposing that IMH diameter greater than 11 mm may be predictive of progression. This preliminary report suggests finite element modelling of the aortic wall may be a useful process by which to examine putative variables important in predicting progression or regression of intramural haematoma.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, intramural haematoma, acute aortic syndrome

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