Dr. Svetlana Pushkar

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Architectural and Environmental Engineering
University: Ariel University
Department:
Research Fields: green rating system, urban community, sustainable design, standardization, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture,

Publications

1 LEED Empirical Evidence in Northern and Southern Europe

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar

Abstract:

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system is recognized in Europe. LEED uses regional priority (RP) points that are adapted to different environmental conditions. However, the appropriateness of the RP points is still a controversial question. To clarify this issue, two different parts of Europe: northern Europe (Finland and Sweden) and southern Europe (Turkey and Spain) were considered. Similarities and differences in the performances of LEED 2009-new construction (LEED-NC 2009) in these four countries were analyzed. It was found that LEED-NC 2009 performances in northern and southern parts of Europe in terms of Sustainable Sites (SS), Water Efficiency (WE), Materials and Resources (MR), and Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) were similar, whereas in Energy and Atmosphere (EA), their performances were different. WE and SS revealed high performances (70-100%); EA and EQ demonstrated intermediate performance (40-60%); and MR displayed low performance (20-40%). It should be recommended introducing the following new RP points: for Turkey - water-related points and for all four observed countries - green power-related points for improving the LEED adaptation in Europe.

Keywords: Green Building, Europe, LEED, regional priority points

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Abstracts

4 LEED Empirical Evidence in Northern and Southern Europe

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar

Abstract:

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system is recognized in Europe. LEED uses regional priority (RP) points that are adapted to different environmental conditions. However, the appropriateness of the RP points is still a controversial question. To clarify this issue, two different parts of Europe: northern Europe (Finland and Sweden) and southern Europe (Turkey and Spain) were considered. Similarities and differences in the performances of LEED 2009-new construction (LEED-NC 2009) in these four countries were analyzed. It was found that LEED-NC 2009 performances in northern and southern parts of Europe in terms of Sustainable Sites (SS), Water Efficiency (WE), Materials and Resources (MR), and Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) were similar, whereas in Energy and Atmosphere (EA), their performances were different. WE and SS revealed high performances (70-100%); EA and EQ demonstrated intermediate performance (40-60%); and MR displayed low performance (20-40%). It should be recommended introducing the following new RP points: for Turkey - water-related points and for all four observed countries - green power-related points for improving the LEED adaptation in Europe.

Keywords: Green Building, Europe, LEED, leadership in energy and environmental design, regional priority points

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3 Re-Analyzing Energy-Conscious Design

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky

Abstract:

An energy-conscious design for a classroom in a hot-humid climate is reanalyzed. The hypothesis of this study is that use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in building operation energy consumption will lead to re-analysis of the energy-conscious design. Therefore, the objective of this study is to reanalyze the energy-conscious design by evaluating the environmental impact of operational energy with PV electrical generation. Using the hierarchical design structure of Eco-indicator 99, the alternatives for energy-conscious variables are statistically evaluated by applying a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA. The recommendations for the preferred solutions for application of glazing types, wall insulation, roof insulation, window size, roof mass, and window shading design alternatives were changed (for example, glazing type recommendations were changed from low-emissivity glazing, green, and double- glazed windows to low-emissivity glazing only), whereas the applications for the lighting control system and infiltration are not changed. Such analysis of operational energy can be defined as environment-conscious analysis.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, ANOVA, Eco-indicator 99, energy-conscious design, hot–humid climate

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2 Effects of Different Climate Zones, Building Types, and Primary Fuel Sources for Energy Production on Environmental Damage from Four External Wall Technologies for Residential Buildings in Israel

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky

Abstract:

The goal of the present study is to evaluate environmental damage from four wall technologies under the following conditions: four climate zones in Israel, two building (conventional vs. low-energy) types, and two types of fuel source [natural gas vs. photovoltaic (PV)]. The hierarchical ReCiPe method with a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA test is applied. It was revealed that in a hot climate in Israel in a conventional building fueled by natural gas, OE is dominant (90 %) over the P&C stage (10 %); in a mild climate in Israel in a low-energy building with PV, the P&C stage is dominant (85 %) over the OE stage (15 %). It is concluded that if PV is used in the building sector in Israel, (i) the P&C stage becomes a significant factor that influences the environment, (ii) autoclaved aerated block is the best external wall technology, and (iii) a two-stage nested mixed ANOVA can be used to evaluate environmental damage via ReCiPe when wall technologies are compared.

Keywords: Residential Buildings, Photovoltaic, life cycle assessment (LCA), ReCiPe method

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1 Adopting the Two-Stage Nested Mixed Analysis of Variance Test to the Eco Indicator 99 to Evaluate Building Technologies under LCA Uncertainties

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar

Abstract:

Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) considers fundamental life cycle assessment (LCA) uncertainties via egalitarian/egalitarian (e/e), hierarchist/hierarchist (h/h), individualist/individualist (i/i), individualist/average (i/a), egalitarian/average (e/a), and hierarchist/average (h/a) methodological options. The objective of this study is to provide a reliable two-stage nested mixed balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test as a supplemental test to EI99 to address the problematic combination of similarly and not similarly produced materials usually found in building technologies. The robustness of the test was determined from both the “EI99 (all options)” stage (including e/e, i/i, h/h, e/a, i/a, and h/a - all methodological options) and the “EI99 (perspectives)” stage (including e/e, i/i, and h/h methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with their particular weighting set or e/a, i/a, and h/a methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with the average weighting set) of evaluating building technologies.

Keywords: Building Technologies, LCA uncertainty, Eco-indicator 99, two-stage nested mixed ANOVA test

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