Assist. Prof. Dr. VINOD KUMAR

University: THAPAR UNIVERSITY
Department: Department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Research Fields: MANUFACTURING PROCESSES,NON-TRADITIONAL MACHINING METHODS,OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Publications

9 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Lubrication, traction, starvation, elliptical contact, minimum film thickness

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8 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, S. Mukherjee, H. Nagendra

Abstract:

In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: Video Games, Cognitive Enhancement, deaf and dumb subjects, EEG band powers

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7 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: Pressure Vessel, ANSYS, saddle, support

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6 Fuzzy Logic Based Improved Range Free Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Ashok kumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used to monitor/observe vast inaccessible regions through deployment of large number of sensor nodes in the sensing area. For majority of WSN applications, the collected data needs to be combined with geographic information of its origin to make it useful for the user; information received from remote Sensor Nodes (SNs) that are several hops away from base station/sink is meaningless without knowledge of its source. In addition to this, location information of SNs can also be used to propose/develop new network protocols for WSNs to improve their energy efficiency and lifetime. In this paper, range free localization protocols for WSNs have been proposed. The proposed protocols are based on weighted centroid localization technique, where the edge weights of SNs are decided by utilizing fuzzy logic inference for received signal strength and link quality between the nodes. The fuzzification is carried out using (i) Mamdani, (ii) Sugeno, and (iii) Combined Mamdani Sugeno fuzzy logic inference. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed protocols provide better accuracy in node localization compared to conventional centroid based localization protocols despite presence of unintentional radio frequency interference from radio frequency (RF) sources operating in same frequency band.

Keywords: Localization, received signal strength, range free, link quality indicator, Mamdani fuzzy logic inference, Sugeno fuzzy logic inference

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5 Coding of DWT Coefficients using Run-length Coding and Huffman Coding for the Purpose of Color Image Compression

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Varun Setia

Abstract:

In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.

Keywords: Quantization, DWT, Run Length Coding, huffman coding, JPEG2000, lossy compression

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4 Location Based Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Ashok kumar, Narottam Chand

Abstract:

Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.

Keywords: Clustering, Wireless Sensor Networks, Localization, energy efficient

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3 Prediction of Tool and Nozzle Flow Behavior in Ultrasonic Machining Process

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Jatinder Kumar

Abstract:

The use of hard and brittle material has become increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research work has developed models using finite element approach to predict the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes have been used for the experimentation work.

Keywords: stress, Flow, ultrasonic machining, MRR

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2 Evaluating the Tool Wear Rate in Ultrasonic Machining of Titanium using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Jatinder Kumar

Abstract:

Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional machining process being widely used for commercial machining of brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response, and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting confirmatory experiments.

Keywords: Titanium, ultrasonic machining, tool wear rate

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1 Improved Power Spectrum Estimation for RR-Interval Time Series

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, B. S. Saini, Dilbag Singh, Moin Uddin

Abstract:

The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative magnitudes of each spectral component.

Keywords: Resampling, HRV, Lomb Transform, RR-intervals

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Abstracts

10 Lead Free BNT-BKT-BMgT-CoFe₂O₄ Magnetoelectric Nanoparticulate Composite Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Solution Deposition Method

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, A. K. Paul

Abstract:

Lead free magnetoelectric (ME) nanoparticulate (1−x) BNT-BKT-BMgT−x CFO (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) composite films were synthesized using chemical solution deposition method. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveal that CFO nanoparticles were well distributed in the matrix of BNT-BKT-BMgT. The nanocomposite films exhibit both good magnetic and ferroelectric properties at room temperature (R-T). It is concluded that the modulation in compositions of piezomagnetic/piezoelectric components plays a fundamental role in the magnetoelectric coupling in these nanoparticulate composite films. These ME composites provide a great opportunity as potential lead-free systems for ME devices.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, nanocomposite, lead free multiferroic, ferromagnetic and magneto-electric properties

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9 Effect of Various Tillage Systems on Soil Compaction

Authors: SUSHIL KUMAR, VINOD KUMAR, Mukesh Jain, Vijaya Rani

Abstract:

The prime importance of tillage is that it prepares the land where the seed easily germinate and later the plant can well establish. Using different types of equipments driven manually or by powered, machines make the soil suitable to place the seeds into the desirable depth. Moreover, tillage loosens the compacted layers. Heavy equipment and tillage implements can cause damage to the soil structure. Effect of various tillage methods on soil compaction was studied in Rabi season of 2013-14 at village Ladwa, Hisar, Haryana (India). The experiments studied the effect of six tillage treatments i.e. no tillage or zero tillage (T1), tillage with rotavator (T2), disc harrow (T3), rotavator + sub soiler (T4), disc harrow + sub soiler (T5) and power harrow (T6) on soil compaction. Soil compaction was measured before tillage and after sowing at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing. No change in soil resistance was recorded before and after no tillage treatment. Maximum soil resistance was found in zero tillage followed by disc harrow up to 150 mm soil depth. Minimum soil resistance was found in rotavator immediately after the tillage treatment. However, the soil resistance approached the same level as it had been before the tillage after the soil strata where the implement cannot reach.

Keywords: tillage, compaction, no tillage, rotavator, subsoiler

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8 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Lubrication, traction, starvation, elliptical contact, minimum film thickness

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7 Wear Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Helical Gear

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra, Gajanan Rane, Sushma Rani

Abstract:

This paper presents metallurgical investigation of failed helical gear of diesel engine gear box used in a car. The failure had occurred near the bottomland of the tooth spacing. The failed surface was studied under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and also visually investigated. The images produced through SEM at various magnifications were studied. Detailed metallurgical study indicates that failure was due to foreign material inclusion which is a casting defect. Further study also revealed pitting, spalling and inter-granular fracture as the causes of gear failure.

Keywords: scanning electron microscope, helical gear, casting defect, pitting

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6 Evaluation of Cognitive Benefits among Differently Abled Subjects with Video Game as Intervention

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, S. Mukherjee, H. Nagendra

Abstract:

In this study, the potential benefits of playing action video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among deaf and dumb subjects.

Keywords: Video Games, Cognitive Enhancement, EEG band powers, deaf and dumb subjects

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5 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari

Abstract:

The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, ANSYS, hydro-turbine, head cover, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

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4 The 10,000 Fold Effect of Retrograde Neurotransmission, a New Concept for Stroke Revival: Use of Intracarotid Sodium Nitroprusside

Authors: VINOD KUMAR

Abstract:

Background: Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) showed a level 1 benefit in acute stroke (within 3-6 hrs). Intracarotid sodium nitroprusside (ICSNP) has been studied in this context with a wide treatment window, fast recovery and affordability. This work proposes two mechanisms for acute cases and one mechanism for chronic cases, which are interrelated, for physiological recovery. a)Retrograde Neurotransmission (acute cases): 1)Normal excitatory impulse: at the synaptic level, glutamate activates NMDA receptors, with nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) on the postsynaptic membrane, for further propagation by the calcium-calmodulin complex. Nitric oxide (NO, produced by NOS) travels backward across the chemical synapse and binds the axon-terminal NO receptor/sGC of a presynaptic neuron, regulating anterograde neurotransmission (ANT) via retrograde neurotransmission (RNT). Heme is the ligand-binding site of the NO receptor/sGC. Heme exhibits > 10,000-fold higher affinity for NO than for oxygen (the 10,000-fold effect) and is completed in 20 msec. 2)Pathological conditions: normal synaptic activity, including both ANT and RNT, is absent. A NO donor (SNP) releases NO from NOS in the postsynaptic region. NO travels backward across a chemical synapse to bind to the heme of a NO receptor in the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron, generating an impulse, as under normal conditions. b)Vasospasm: (acute cases) Perforators show vasospastic activity. NO vasodilates the perforators via the NO-cAMP pathway. c)Long-Term Potentıatıon (LTP): (chronic cases) The NO–cGMP-pathway plays a role in LTP at many synapses throughout the CNS and at the neuromuscular junction. LTP has been reviewed both generally and with respect to brain regions specific for memory/learning. Aims/Study Des’gn: The principles of “generation of impulses from the presynaptic region to the postsynaptic region by very potent RNT (10,000-fold effect)” and “vasodilation of arteriolar perforators” are the basis of the authors’ hypothesis to treat stroke cases. Case-control prospective study. Mater’als And Methods: The experimental population included 82 stroke patients (10 patients were given control treatments without superfusion or with 5% dextrose superfusion, and 72 patients comprised the ICSNP group). The mean time for superfusion was 9.5 days post-stroke. Pre- and post-ICSNP status was monitored by NIHSS, MRI and TCD. Results: After 90 seconds in the ICSNP group, the mean change in the NIHSS score was a decrease of 1.44 points, or 6.55%; after 2 h, there was a decrease of 1.16 points; after 24 h, there was an increase of 0.66 points, 2.25%, compared to the control-group increase of 0.7 points, or 3.53%; at 7 days, there was an 8.61-point decrease, 44.58%, compared to the control-group increase of 2.55 points, or 22.37%; at 2 months in ICSNP, there was a 6.94-points decrease, 62.80%, compared to the control-group decrease of 2.77 points, or 8.78%. TCD was documented and improvements were noted. Conclusions: ICSNP is a swift-acting drug in the treatment of stroke, acting within 90 seconds on day 9.5 post-stroke with a small decrease after 24 hours. The drug recovers from this decrease quickly.

Keywords: perforators, retrograde transmission, brain infarcts, intracarotid sodium nitroprusside, vasodilatıons, the 10

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3 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma

Abstract:

This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: Pressure Vessel, ANSYS, saddle, support

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2 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Spiral Casing and Stay Ring Using Ansys

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra, Pooja Rani

Abstract:

In hydro power plant spiral casing and Stay ring is meant to guide the water flow to guide vane and runner. Spiral casing and Stay ring is subjected to static i.e. pressure load as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure due to water hammer effect in water conductor system. Finite element method has been used to calculate stresses on spiral casing and stay ring. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. The design load is reached for the spiral casing and stay ring during the emergency closure of the guide apparatus "LC1 Quick Shut Down”. During this operation the forces from the head cover to the stay ring also reach their maximum.

Keywords: Structural Analysis, hydro-turbine, spiral casing, stay ring

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1 Comparison of Different Methods of Evaluating Nozzle Junction Stresses under External Loads

Authors: Arun Kumar, VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

This paper addresses the junction stress analysis of orthogonally intersecting thin walled cylindrical shell and thin walled cylindrical nozzle subjected to external loading on nozzle. Junction stresses have been calculated theoretically by welding research council (WRC) bulletins 107 and 297 for different nozzle loads. WRC bulletins 107 and 297 have been used by design engineers for calculating nozzle-vessel junction stresses since their publication. They give simple empirical relations and easy in application. Also 3D FEA in which material is elastic has been done in ANSYS software with 8 node solid element model and results of FEA have been compared with WRC results. Stress intensities obtained by WRC 297 are generally slightly higher than obtained by WRC 107. Membrane stresses obtained by FEA are much higher than WRC and membrane plus bending stresses obtained by FEA are lower than WRC.

Keywords: FEA, junction stress, solid element, WRC 107, WRC 297

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