Charles Mbohwa

Publications

3 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Roshan Jelal

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn.

Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behavior within the organization is likely to yield desired results.

This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Ethics, internal fraud, the King Code, South African Reserve Bank

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2 South Africa’s Industrial Expansion – The Role of Technology Transfer

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Gift Nyambe

Abstract:

The paper reviews South Africa’s industrialization, the basis of its formation and to establish whether it can be expanded using technology transfer mechanisms principles. It also seek to draw comparisons from other industrialized countries and as a baseline, and take lessons on how these industrialized countries have achieved their secondary industrialization; hence they are known as the developed countries. It identifies the challenges faced by South Africa’s current industrial base and recommend ways that could be meaningful in assisting it to be expandable. It also seeks to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on industrialization and technology transfer in advancing industry formation. It is also the intention of the paper to look at best principles outlined in operations management theories on how they could be of value in strengthening industrial formation and expansion. These principles include but not limited to the application of lean manufacturing principles, however they are not only applicable to the manufacturing sector but to any business optimization strategy. There will be emphasize on the role of the primary sector in South Africa’s industrialization and the opportunities it ought to bring in strengthening and harnessing the success of the secondary sector formation.

Keywords: expansion, industrialization, operations and Technology transfer

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1 Sustainable and Ecological Designs of the Built Environment

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Alexander Mudiwakure

Abstract:

This paper reviews designs of the built environment from a sustainability perspective, emphasizing their importance in achieving ecological and sustainable economic objectives. The built environment has traditionally resulted in loss of biodiversity, extinction of some species, climate change, excessive water use, land degradation, space depletion, waste accumulation, energy consumption and environmental pollution. Materials used like plastics, metals, bricks, concrete, cement, natural aggregates, glass and plaster have wreaked havoc on the earth´s resources, since they have high levels of embodied energy hence not sustainable. Additional resources are consumed during use and disposal phases. Proposed designs for sustainability solutions include: ecological sanitation and eco-efficiency systems that ensure social, economic, environmental and technical sustainability. Renewable materials and energy systems, passive cooling and heating systems and material and energy reduction, reuse and recycling can improve the sector. These ideas are intended to inform the field of ecological design of the built environment.

Keywords: Ecological Sanitation, Ecological and sustainability designs, environmental degradation, energy use efficiency

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Abstracts

10 Factors Responsible for Delays in the Execution of Adequately Funded Construction Projects

Authors: Edoghogho Ogbeifun, Charles Mbohwa, J. H. C. Pretorius

Abstract:

Several research report on the factors responsible for the delays in the completion of construction projects has identified the issue of funding as a critical factor; insufficient funding, low cash-flow or lack of funds. Indeed, adequate funding plays pivotal role in the effective execution of construction projects. In the last twenty years (or so), there has been increase in the funds available for infrastructure development in tertiary institution in Nigeria, especially, through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund. This funding body ensures that there is enough fund for each approved project, which is released in three stages during the life of the construction project. However, a random tour of many of the institutions reveals striking evidence of projects not delivered on schedule, to quality and sometime out rightly abandoned. This suggests, therefore, that there are other latent factors, responsible for project delays, that should be investigated. Thus, this research, a pilot scheme, is aimed at unearthing the possible reasons for the delays being experienced in the execution of construction projects for infrastructure upgrade in public tertiary institutions in Nigeria, funded by Tertiary Education Trust Fund. The multiple site case study of qualitative research was adopted. The respondents were the Directors of Physical Planning and the Directors of Works of four Nigerian Public Universities. The findings reveal that delays can be situated within three entities, namely, the funding body, the institutions and others. Therefore, the emerging factors have been classified as external factors (haven to do with the funding body), internal factors (these concern the operations within the institutions) and general factors. The outcome of this pilot exercise provides useful information to guide the Directors as they interact with the funding body as well as challenges themselves to address the loopholes in their internal operations.

Keywords: funding, delays, external factors, internal factors, general factors

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9 Reducing the Negative Effects of Infrastructure Deficit through Continuity in Governance

Authors: Edoghogho Ogbeifun, Charles Mbohwa, J. H. C. Pretorius

Abstract:

Effective infrastructure development scheme planned and executed has positive influence on the quantity of available stock of infrastructure to meet the immediate and expansion needs of an organization, as well as contribute to the overall economic development of a nation, community or the local entity where the infrastructure is hosted. It is noteworthy, however, that infrastructure development scheme spans a long time frame, usually longer than the political life of the administration that initiates the scheme. In the majority of circumstances, execution may start and achieve different levels of completion; at best, only limited numbers are completed and put into functional use during the life of the administration that initiated the infrastructure scheme. When there is a change in leadership, many of the uncompleted projects are usually abandoned. The new administration repeats the circle of its predecessors and develops another set of infrastructure scheme which will suffer similar fate as the ones developed by their predecessors; thus doting the landscape with many uncompleted projects, which leads to infrastructure deficit. These circle will continue unless each succeeding leader sees governance as single continuum. Therefore, infrastructure projects not completed by one administration should be continued by succeeding administration, in order to increase the stock of relevant infrastructure available for the smooth operations organization and enhance the needed developments, as well as reduce the negative effects of infrastructure deficit. The single case study of qualitative research method was adopted to investigate the actions of the administration of three successive Vice-Chancellors, in a higher education institution in Nigeria, over a longitudinal period of twelve years. This is with a view to exploring the effects of each administration on the development and execution of infrastructure projects, with particular interest on abandoned projects. The findings revealed that although two of Vice-Chancellors were committed to infrastructure upgrade, they executed more new projects than completing abandoned ones, while the current leader has shown more pragmatism in completing abandoned projects alongside constructing new ones; thus demonstrating the importance of the continuity of governance. In this regard, there is a steady increase in the stock of infrastructure to accommodate the expansion of existing academic programmes, host new ones as well as reduce the negative effects of infrastructure deficit caused by abandoned projects.

Keywords: abandoned projects, continuity of governance, infrastructure development scheme, long time frame

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8 Aggregate Production Planning Framework in a Multi-Product Factory: A Case Study

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

This study looks at the best model of aggregate planning activity in an industrial entity and uses the trial and error method on spreadsheets to solve aggregate production planning problems. Also linear programming model is introduced to optimize the aggregate production planning problem. Application of the models in a furniture production firm is evaluated to demonstrate that practical and beneficial solutions can be obtained from the models. Finally some benchmarking of other furniture manufacturing industries was undertaken to assess relevance and level of use in other furniture firms

Keywords: Linear Programming, aggregate production planning, trial and error, furniture industry

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7 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) as a Strategy for Competitiveness

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

This research examines the effect of a human resource strategy and the overall equipment effectiveness as well as assessing how the combination of the two can increase a firm’s productivity. The human resource aspect is looked at in detail to assess motivation of operators through training to reduce wastage on the manufacturing shop floor. The waste was attributed to operators, maintenance personal, idle machines, idle manpower and break downs. This work seeks to investigate the concept of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in addressing these short comings in the manufacturing case study. The impact of TPM to increase production while, as well as increasing employee morale and job satisfaction is assessed. This can be resource material for practitioners who seek to improve overall equipment efficiency (OEE) to achieve higher level productivity and competitiveness.

Keywords: Strategy, Maintenance, Productivity, Efficiency, TPM

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6 Cleaner Production Framework for an Beverage Manufacturing Company

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

This study explores to improve the resource efficiency, waste water reduction and to reduce losses of raw materials in a beverage making industry. A number of cleaner production technologies were put across in this work. It was also noted that cleaner production technology practices are not only desirable from the environmental point of view, but they also make good economic sense, in their contribution to the bottom line by conserving resources like energy, raw materials and manpower, improving yield as well as reducing treatment/disposal costs. This work is a resource in promoting adoption and implementation of CP in other industries for sustainable development.

Keywords: Energy, Cleaner Production, Beverages, Yield, Resource Efficiency, reduce losses

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5 Use of Six-sigma Concept in Discrete Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Ignatio Madanhire

Abstract:

Efficiency in manufacturing is critical in raising the value of exports so as to gainfully trade on the regional and international markets. There seems to be increasing popularity of continuous improvement strategies availed to manufacturing entities, but this research study established that there has not been a similar popularity accorded to the Six Sigma methodology. Thus this work was conducted to investigate the applicability, effectiveness, usefulness, application and suitability of the Six Sigma methodology as a competitiveness option for discrete manufacturing entity. Development of Six-sigma center in the country with continuous improvement information would go a long way in benefiting the entire industry

Keywords: Efficiency, Competitiveness, discrete manufacturing, six-sigma, continuous improvement

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4 Design of a Vehicle Door Structure Based on Finite Element Method

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Tawanda Mushiri

Abstract:

The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design. In the present paper, the finite element method is used in the development processes of the door assembly. The stiffness, strength, modal characteristic, and anti-extrusion of a newly developed passenger vehicle door assembly are calculated and evaluated by several finite element analysis commercial software. The structural problems discovered by FE analysis have been modified and finally achieved the expected door structure performance target of this new vehicle. The issue in focus is to predict the performance of the door assembly by powerful finite element analysis software, and optimize the structure to meet the design targets. It is observed that this method can be used to forecast the performance of vehicle door efficiently when it’s designed. In order to reduce lead time and cost in the product development of vehicles more development will be made virtually.

Keywords: Structure, Strength, Finite Element Method, Stiffness, vehicle door, modal characteristic, anti-extrusion

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3 Elastoplastic Collapse Analysis of Pipe Bends Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Tawanda Mushiri

Abstract:

When an external load is applied to one of its ends, a pipe’s bends cross section tends to deform significantly both in and out of its end plane. This shell type behaviour characteristic of pipe bends and mainly due to their curves geometry accounts for their greater flexibility. This added flexibility is also accompanied by stressed and strains that are much higher than those present in a straight pipe. The primary goal of this research is to study the elastic-plastic behaviour of pipe bends under out of plane moment loading. It is also required to study the effects of changing the value of the pipe bend factor and the value of the internal pressure on that behaviour and to determine the value of the limit moments in each case. The results of these analyses are presented in the form of load deflection plots for each load case belonging to each model. From the load deflection curves, the limit moments of each case are obtained. The limit loads are then compared to those computed using some of the analytical and empirical equation available in the literature. The effects of modelling parameters are also studied. The results obtained from small displacement and large displacement analyses are compared and the effects of using a strain hardened material model are also investigated. To better understand the behaviour of pipe elbows under out of plane bending and internal pressure, it was deemed important to know how the cross section deforms and to study the distribution of stresses that cause it to deform in a particular manner. An elbow with pipe bend factor h=0.1 to h=1 is considered and the results of the detailed analysis are thereof examined.

Keywords: Simulation, Finite Element Analysis, elasto-plastic, pipe bends

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2 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Roshan Jelal

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Ethics, internal fraud, reserve bank, the King Code

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1 Improving the Efficiency of Pelton Wheel and Cross-Flow Micro Hydro Power Plants

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Loice K. Gudukeya

Abstract:

The research investigates hydropower plant efficiency with a view to improving the power output while keeping the overall project cost per kilowatt produced within an acceptable range. It reviews the commonly used Pelton and Cross-flow turbines which are employed in the region for micro-hydro power plants. Turbine parameters such as surface texture, material used and fabrication processes are dealt with the intention of increasing the efficiency by 20 to 25 percent for the micro hydro-power plants.

Keywords: Manufacture, Efficiency, Hydro, Power Plant

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