3 Evaluation of Energy and Environmental Aspects of Reduced Tillage Systems Applied in Maize Cultivation
In maize growing technologies, tillage technological operations are the most time-consuming and require the greatest fuel input. Substitution of conventional tillage, involving deep ploughing, by other reduced tillage methods can reduce technological production costs, diminish soil degradation and environmental pollution from greenhouse gas emissions, as well as improve economic competitiveness of agricultural produce.
Experiments designed to assess energy and environmental aspects associated with different reduced tillage systems, applied in maize cultivation were conducted at Aleksandras Stulginskis University taking into account Lithuania’s economic and climate conditions. The study involved 5 tillage treatments: deep ploughing (DP, control), shallow ploughing (SP), deep cultivation (DC), shallow cultivation (SC) and no-tillage (NT).
Our experimental evidence suggests that with the application of reduced tillage systems it is feasible to reduce fuel consumption by 13-58% and working time input by 8.4% to nearly 3-fold, to reduce the cost price of maize cultivation technological operations, decrease environmental pollution with CO2 gas by 30 to 146 kg ha-1, compared with the deep ploughing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1770
2 Influence of Combined Drill Coulters on Seedbed Compaction under Conservation Tillage Technologies
Abstract:All over the world, including the Middle and East European countries, sustainable tillage and sowing technologies are applied increasingly broadly with a view to optimising soil resources, mitigating soil degradation processes, saving energy resources, preserving biological diversity, etc. As a result, altered conditions of tillage and sowing technological processes are faced inevitably. The purpose of this study is to determine the seedbed topsoil hardness when using a combined sowing coulter in different sustainable tillage technologies. The research involved a combined coulter consisting of two dissected blade discs and a shoe coulter. In order to determine soil hardness at the seedbed area, a multipenetrometer was used. It was found by experimental studies that in loosened soil, a combined sowing coulter equally suppresses the furrow bottom, walls and soil near the furrow; therefore, here, soil hardness was similar at all researched depths and no significant differences were established. In loosened and compacted (double-rolled) soil, the impact of a combined coulter on the hardness of seedbed soil surface was more considerable at a depth of 2 mm. Soil hardness at the furrow bottom and walls to a distance of up to 26 mm was 1.1 MPa. At a depth of 10 mm, the greatest hardness was established at the furrow bottom. In loosened and heavily compacted (rolled for 6 times) soil, at a depth of 2 and 10 mm a combined coulter most of all compacted the furrow bottom, which has a hardness of 1.8 MPa. At a depth of 20 mm, soil hardness within the whole investigated area varied insignificantly and fluctuated by around 2.0 MPa. The hardness of furrow walls and soil near the furrow was by approximately 1.0 MPa lower than that at the furrow bottom Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1030
1 The Effect of the Disc Coulters Forms on Cutting of Spring Barley Residues in No-Tillage
The introduction of sowing technologies into minimum- or no-tillage soil has a number of economical and environmental virtues, such as improving soil properties, decreasing soil erosion and degradation, and saving working time and fuel. However, the main disadvantage of these technologies is that plant residues on the soil surface reduce the quality of the planted crop seeds, thus requiring plant residues to be removed or cut. This paper presents a analysis of disc coulter parameters and an experimental investigation of cutting spring barley straw containing various amounts of moisture with different disc coulters (smooth and notched).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1667
1 The Influense of Alternative Farming Systems on Physical Parameters of the Soil
Abstract:Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high quality food products and retain the viability and fertility of soil. The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2013. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In different farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and green manure catch crops used for fertilization both in the soil low in humus and in the soil moderate in humus. In the 0–20 cm depth layer, it had a more significant effect on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, in which catch crops had been grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil moderate in humus content, compared with the soil low in humus, bulk density was by 1.4 % lower, and porosity by 1.8 % higher. The research findings create a possibility to make improvements in alternative cropping systems by choosing organic fertilizers and catch crops’ combinations that have the sustainable effect on soil and that maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote a development of organic agriculture. Procedia PDF Downloads 276