Dr. Zoi Konsoula

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Nutrition and Food Engineering
University: University of Nicosia
Department: Department of Life and Health Sciences
Research Fields: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, pomegranate,

Publications

1 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, pomegranate, corn oil, oxidative deterioration

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Abstracts

3 A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, alzheimer’s disease, α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, pomegranate

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2 Oxidative Stability of Corn Oil Supplemented with Natural Antioxidants from Cypriot Salvia fruticosa Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Vegetable oils, which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, are susceptible to oxidative deterioration. The lipid oxidation of oils results in the production of rancid odors and unpleasant flavors as well as the reduction of their nutritional quality and safety. Traditionally, synthetic antioxidants are employed for their retardation or prevention of oxidative deterioration of oils. However, these compounds are suspected to pose health hazards. Consequently, recently there has been a growing interest in the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin for improving the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. The genus Salvia (sage) is well known for its antioxidant activity. In the Cypriot flora Salvia fruticosa is the most distributed indigenous Salvia species. In the present study, extracts were prepared from S. fruticosa aerial parts using various solvents and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Moreover, the antioxidant efficacy of all extracts was assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate, which was subjected to accelerated aging (60 °C, 30 days). The progress of lipid oxidation was monitored by the determination of the peroxide, p-aniside, conjugated dienes and trienes value according to the official AOCS methods. Synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene-BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole-BHA) were employed at their legal limit (200 ppm) as reference. Finally, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) of the prepared extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. The results of the present study revealed that although all sage extracts prepared from S. fruticosa exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest antioxidant capacity was recorded in the methanolic extract, followed by the non-toxic, food grade ethanol. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the antioxidant potency and the TPC of extracts was observed in all cases. Interestingly, sage extracts prevented lipid oxidation in corn oil at all concentrations tested, however, the magnitude of stabilization was dose dependent. More specifically, results from the different oxidation parameters were in agreement with each other and indicated that the protection offered by the various extracts depended on their TPC. Among the extracts, the methanolic extract was more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Finally, both methanolic and ethanolic sage extracts at a concentration of 1000 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of the reference synthetic antioxidants. Based on the results of the present study, sage extracts could be used for minimizing or preventing lipid oxidation in oils and, thus, prolonging their shelf-life. In particular, given that the use of dietary alcohol, such as ethanol, is preferable than methanol in food applications, the ethanolic extract prepared from S. fruticosa could be used as an alternative natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, SAGE, corn oil, oxidative deterioration

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1 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

Abstract:

Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, pomegranate, corn oil, oxidative deterioration

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