Dr. Henri El Zakhem

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Biotechnology and Bioengineering
University: University of Balamand
Department: Chemical Engineering
Research Fields: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet,

Publications

1 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

Abstract:

Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: Crystallization, Extraction, squalene, Soxhlet.‎

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Abstracts

5 Design of New Baby Food Product Using Whey

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Anthony Dahdah, Lara Frangieh, Jessica Koura

Abstract:

Nowadays, the removal of whey produced in the dairy processes has been the most important problem in the dairy industry. Every year, about 47% of the 115 million tons of whey produced world-wide are disposed in the environment. Whey is a nutritious liquid, containing whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulin-G, proteose pepton), lactose, vitamins (B5, B2, C, and B6), minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Chloride, and Sodium), and trace elements (Zinc, Iron, Iodine, and Copper). The first objective was to increase the economical and commercial value of whey which is considered as by-product. The second objective of this study was to formulate a new baby food with good nutritional, sensory and storage properties and acceptable to consumers using the cheese whey. The creation of the new product must pass through the following stages: idea stage, development stage which includes the business planning and the product development prototype, packaging stage, production stage, test marketing stage, quality control/sanitation. Three types of whey-based food were selected and prepared by mixing whey and apple, whey and banana as well as whey, apple, and banana.To compile with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and adequate intakes (AI) for vitamins and minerals, each sample is formed from 114g of sliced and smashed fruits mixed with 8 mL of whey. Mixtures are heated to 72oC for 15 seconds, and filled in pasteurized jars. Jars were conserved at 4oC. Following the experimental part, sensory evaluation made by an experienced panel took place. Hedonic tests results show that the mixture of whey, apple, and banana has the most delicious and sweetness taste followed by the mixture of whey and banana, and finally the mixture of whey and apple. This study was concluded with a managerial and engineering study that reveals that the project is economically profitable to be executed in Lebanon.

Keywords: Formulation, by-product, cheese whey, baby food

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4 Design of a Dietetic Food: Case of Lebanese Kishk

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Dona Shalhoub, Elias Atallah, Jessica Koura

Abstract:

Due to the increase of demand on dietetic food and the need for more types of diet food, the production of dietetic food is increasing and improving. This demand on dietetic food has triggered us to study the market in which we found that Kishk (Lebanese dairy product) diet is not available. Production of a low fat product which is diet Kishk was our concern. A strategy was followed to choose the right idea that will satisfy the need of the market. The whole process was studied and explained thoroughly. The percentage of fat was found to be 32.52 % in regular Kishk and 3.84 % in the diet Kishk produced. The new product has the advantage to be high in protein, low in fat.

Keywords: fat, design and industrialization, dietetic, diet Kishk

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of an Extensive Green Roof with a Traditional Gravel-Asphalted Roof: An Application for the Lebanese Context

Authors: Makram El Bachawati, Rima Manneh, Thomas Dandres, Carla Nassab, Henri El Zakhem, Rafik Belarbi

Abstract:

A vegetative roof, also called a garden roof, is a "roofing system that endorses the growth of plants on a rooftop". Garden roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as embellishing the roofing system, enhancing the water management, and reducing the energy consumption and heat island effects. Lebanon is a Middle East country that lacks the use of a sustainable energy system. It imports 98% of its non-renewable energy from neighboring countries and suffers flooding during heavy rains. The objective of this paper is to determine if the implementation of vegetative roofs is effectively better than the traditional roofs for the Lebanese context. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed in order to compare an existing extensive green roof to a traditional gravel-asphalted roof. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was established and modeled using the SimaPro 8.0 software, while the environmental impacts were classified using the IMPACT 2002+ methodology. Results indicated that, for the existing extensive green roof, the waterproofing membrane and the growing medium were the highest contributors to the potential environmental impacts. When comparing the vegetative to the traditional roof, results showed that, for all impact categories, the extensive green roof had the less environmental impacts.

Keywords: Environmental Impact, Life Cycle Assessment, Green roofs, vegatative roof

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2 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

Abstract:

Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: Crystallization, Extraction, squalene, Soxhlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
1 Dependence of the Electro-Stimulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Pulsed Electric Field at the Yeast Growth Phase

Authors: Jessy Mattar, Mohamad Turk, Maurice Nonus, Nikolai Lebovka, Henri El Zakhem, Eugene Vorobiev

Abstract:

The effects of electro-stimulation of S. cerevisiae cells in colloidal suspension by Pulsed Electric Fields ‎‎(PEF) with electric field strength E = 20 – 2000 V.cm-1 and effective PEF treatment time tPEF = 10^−5 – 1 s were ‎investigated. The applied experimental procedure includes variations in the preliminary fermentation time and ‎electro-stimulation by PEF-treatment. Plate counting was performed.‎ At relatively high electric fields (E ≥ 1000 V.cm-1) and moderate PEF treatment time (tPEF > 100 µs), the ‎extraction of ionic components from yeast was observed by conductivity measurements, which can be related to ‎electroporation of cell membranes. Cell counting revealed a dependency of the colonies’ size on the time of ‎preliminary fermentation tf and the power consumption W, however no dependencies were noticeable by varying the initial yeast concentration in the treated suspensions.‎

Keywords: Biotechnology, Fermentation, Yeast, Electroporation, intensification

Procedia PDF Downloads 284