P. Birch

Publications

3 Sustainable Control of Taro Beetles via Scoliid Wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae

Authors: P. Birch, F. O. Faithpraise, J. Idung, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young, H. Lu

Abstract:

Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear ordinary differential equations that track the populations of the beetle life cycle stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult and the population of the scoliid parasitoid wasps, which attack beetle larvae. In spite of the challenge driven by the longevity of the scarab beetles, the combined effect of the larval wasps and the fungal bio-control agent is able to control and drive down the population of both the adult and the beetle eggs below the environmental carrying capacity within an interval of 120 days, offering the long term prospect of a stable and eco-friendly environment; where the population of scarab beetles is: regulated by parasitoid wasps and beneficial soil saprophytes.

Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, parasitoids, Scoliid wasps, Sustainable control, Taro beetles

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2 Targeting the Life Cycle Stages of the Diamond Back Moth (Plutella xylostella) with Three Different Parasitoid Wasps

Authors: P. Birch, F. O. Faithpraise, J. Idung, C. R. Chatwin, R. C. D. Young

Abstract:

A continuous time model of the interaction between crop insect pests and naturally beneficial pest enemies is created using a set of simultaneous, non-linear, ordinary differential equations incorporating natural death rates based on the Weibull distribution. The crop pest is present in all its life-cycle stages of: egg, larva, pupa and adult. The beneficial insects, parasitoid wasps, may be present in either or all parasitized: eggs, larva and pupa. Population modelling is used to estimate the quantity of the natural pest enemies that should be introduced into the pest infested environment to suppress the pest population density to an economically acceptable level within a prescribed number of days. The results obtained illustrate the effect of different combinations of parasitoid wasps, using the Pascal distribution to estimate their success in parasitizing different pest developmental stages, to deliver pest control to a sustainable level. Effective control, within a prescribed number of days, is established by the deployment of two or all three species of wasps, which partially destroy pest: egg, larvae and pupae stages. The selected scenarios demonstrate effective sustainable control of the pest in less than thirty days.

Keywords: Biological Control, Diamondback moth, Parasitoid wasps, Population modeling

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1 An Optical WDM Network Concept for Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin, R. Young, P. Birch

Abstract:

Tanzania is a developing country, which significantly lags behind the rest of the world in information communications technology (ICT), especially for the Internet. Internet connectivity to the rest of the world is via expensive satellite links, thus leaving the majority of the population unable to access the Internet due to the high cost. This paper introduces the concept of an optical WDM network for Internet infrastructure in Tanzania, so as to reduce Internet connection costs, and provide Internet access to the majority of people who live in both urban and rural areas. We also present a proposed optical WDM network, which mitigates the effects of system impairments, and provide simulation results to show that the data is successfully transmitted over a longer distance using a WDM network.

Keywords: wdm, Internet Access, Internet infrastructure, Internettraffic

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Abstracts

1 Kinoform Optimisation Using Gerchberg- Saxton Iterative Algorithm

Authors: C. Chatwin, R. Young, P. Birch, M. Al-Shamery

Abstract:

Computer Generated Holography (CGH) is employed to create digitally defined coherent wavefronts. A CGH can be created by using different techniques such as by using a detour-phase technique or by direct phase modulation to create a kinoform. The detour-phase technique was one of the first techniques that was used to generate holograms digitally. The disadvantage of this technique is that the reconstructed image often has poor quality due to the limited dynamic range it is possible to record using a medium with reasonable spatial resolution.. The kinoform (phase-only hologram) is an alternative technique. In this method, the phase of the original wavefront is recorded but the amplitude is constrained to be constant. The original object does not need to exist physically and so the kinoform can be used to reconstruct an almost arbitrary wavefront. However, the image reconstructed by this technique contains high levels of noise and is not identical to the reference image. To improve the reconstruction quality of the kinoform, iterative techniques such as the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GS) are employed. In this paper the GS algorithm is described for the optimisation of a kinoform used for the reconstruction of a complex wavefront. Iterations of the GS algorithm are applied to determine the phase at a plane (with known amplitude distribution which is often taken as uniform), that satisfies given phase and amplitude constraints in a corresponding Fourier plane. The GS algorithm can be used in this way to enhance the reconstruction quality of the kinoform. Different images are employed as the reference object and their kinoform is synthesised using the GS algorithm. The quality of the reconstructed images is quantified to demonstrate the enhanced reconstruction quality achieved by using this method.

Keywords: digital holography, computer generated holography, Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, kinoform

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