P. K. Singh


1 An Efficient and Generic Hybrid Framework for High Dimensional Data Clustering

Authors: Dharmveer Singh Rajput , P. K. Singh, Mahua Bhattacharya


Clustering in high dimensional space is a difficult problem which is recurrent in many fields of science and engineering, e.g., bioinformatics, image processing, pattern reorganization and data mining. In high dimensional space some of the dimensions are likely to be irrelevant, thus hiding the possible clustering. In very high dimensions it is common for all the objects in a dataset to be nearly equidistant from each other, completely masking the clusters. Hence, performance of the clustering algorithm decreases. In this paper, we propose an algorithmic framework which combines the (reduct) concept of rough set theory with the k-means algorithm to remove the irrelevant dimensions in a high dimensional space and obtain appropriate clusters. Our experiment on test data shows that this framework increases efficiency of the clustering process and accuracy of the results.

Keywords: rough set, discernibility matrix, k-means, High dimensional clustering, sub-space

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3 Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Blood Biochemical Changes and Lipid Profile of Vanaraja Chicken in Tropics

Authors: Kaushalendra Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Chandra Moni, Sanjay Kumar, P. K. Singh, Ajeet Kumar


Present study investigated the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on production efficiency, hemato-biochemical profile and economy of Vanaraja birds under tropical condition. Experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days on 300 Vanaraja birds randomly divided in to five different experimental groups including control of 60 birds each group replicated with 20 chicks in each replicate. T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were offered with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Moringa oleifera leaf meal along with basal ration. All the standard managemental practices were followed during experimental period including vaccination schedule. Locally available Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested at mature stage and allowed to dry under shady and aerated conditions. Thereafter, dried leaves were milled to make a leaf meal and stored in the airtight nylon bags to avoid any possible contamination from foreign material and use for experiment. Production parameters were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed and weight gain every weeks. The body weight gain of T2 group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher side whereas T3 group was comparable with control. The feed conversion ratio for T2 group was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other treatment groups, while none of the group was comparable with each other. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected from birds for haematology study while serum biochemistry performed using spectrophotometer following statndard protocols. The haematological attributes were significantly (P > 0.05) not differed among the groups. However, serum biochemistry showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine level with higher level of MOLM diet, indicates better utilization of protein supplemented through MOLM. The total cholesterol and triglyceride level was declined significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group with increased level of MOLM in basal diet, decreasing trend of serum cholesterol noted. However, value of HDL for T3 group was highest and for T1 group was lowest but no significant difference (P < 0.05) found among the groups. It might be due to presence of β-sitosterol a bioactive compound present in MOLM which causes lowering of plasma concentration of LDL. During experiment total, LDL and VLDL level was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group. It was observed that the production efficiency of birds significantly improved with 5% followed by 10% Moringa oleifera leaf meal among the treatment groups. However, the maximum profit per kg live weight was noted in 10 % level and least profit observed in 20% MOLM fed group. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of MOLM improved overall performances without affecting metabolic status and effective in reducing cholesterol level reflects healthy chicken production for human consumption.

Keywords: Performance, hemato biochemistry, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, Vanaraja birds

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2 Impact of a Novel Technique of S-Shaped Tracheostoma in Pediatric Tracheostomy in Intensive Care Unit on Success and Procedure Related Complications

Authors: Devendra Gupta, Sushilk K. Agarwal, Amit Kesari, P. K. Singh


Objectives: Pediatric patients often may experience persistent respiratory failure that requires tracheostomy placement in Pediatric ICU. We have designed a technique of tracheostomy in pediatric patients with S-shaped incision on the tracheal wall with higher success rate and lower complication rate. Technique: Following general anesthesia and positioning of the patient, the trachea was exposed in midline by a vertical skin incision. In order to make S-shaped tracheostoma, second tracheal ring was identified. The conventional vertical incision was made in second tracheal ring and then extended at both its ends laterally in the inter-cartilaginous space parallel to the tracheal cartilage in the opposite direction to make the incision S-shaped. The trachea was dilated with tracheal dilator and appropriate size of tracheostomy tube was then placed into the trachea. Results: S-shaped tracheostomy was performed in 20 children with mean age of 6.25 years (age range is 2-7) requiring tracheostomy placement. The tracheostomy tubes were successfully placed in all the patients in single attempt. There was no incidence of significant intra-operative bleeding, subcutaneous emphysema, vocal cord palsy or pneumothorax. Two patients developed pneumonia and expired within a year. However, there was no incidence of tracheo-esophageal fistula, suprastomal collapse or difficulty in decannulation on one year of follow up related to our technique. One patient developed late trachietis managed conservatively. Conclusion: S-shaped tracheoplasty was associated with high success rate, reduced risk of the early and late complications in pediatric patients requiring tracheostomy.

Keywords: Tracheostomy, ICU, peatrics, tracheostoma

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1 Streptavidin-Biotin Attachment on Modified Silicon Nanowires

Authors: Shalini Singh, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Govind, Mukhtar. A. Khan, P. K. Singh


Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the development of biosensors. Nanomaterials and nanofabrication technologies are increasingly being used to design novel biosensors. Sensitivity and other attributes of biosensors can be improved by using nanomaterials with unique chemical, physical, and mechanical properties in their construction. Silicon is a promising biomaterial that is non-toxic and biodegradable and can be exploited in chemical and biological sensing. Present study demonstrated the streptavidin–biotin interaction on silicon surfaces with different topographies such as flat and nanostructured silicon (nanowires) surfaces. Silicon nanowires with wide range of surface to volume ratio were prepared by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer. The large specific surface of silicon nanowires can be chemically modified to link different molecular probes (DNA strands, enzymes, proteins and so on), which recognize the target analytes, in order to enhance the selectivity and specificity of the sensor device. The interaction of streptavidin with biotin was carried out on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) functionalized silicon surfaces. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been performed to characterize the surface characteristics to ensure the protein attachment. Silicon nanowires showed the enhance protein attachment, as compared to flat silicon surface due to its large surface area and good molecular penetration to its surface. The methodology developed herein could be generalized to a wide range of protein-ligand interactions, since it is relatively easy to conjugate biotin with diverse biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, peptides, and nucleotides.

Keywords: Silicon Nanowires, FTIR, XPS, streptavidin-biotin

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