Dr. Muhammad Irfan

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Bioengineering and Life Sciences
University: Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Laboratories (PCSIR) Complex
Department: Food and Biotechnology Research Center
Research Fields: Enzymology, Microbial Fermentation, QTL Mapping, Molecular Markers

Publications

1 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

Abstract:

Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2559

Abstracts

4 Sociological Analysis of Fulfillment Regarding Basic Needs of Females(Women) at Home with Special Reference of Balochistan (Pakistan)

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Shabana Mohammad

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to bring out the facts regarding the effects of gender discrimination in fulfilling the basic needs of females at home. The purpose of the study was to observe whether gender discrimination affects the fulfillment of their basic needs in comparison to male siblings. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan geographically and has a tribal system. Due to having tribal systems, the women are not treated equally as men at home because males are considered the strength and privilege of tribes; males are more valuable because they support their families economically as well, and females are not allowed to work outside the home. That’s why females are deprived of their basic needs of life. The females (women) are neglected to have better nourishment, health facilities, easy access to get an education, safe house, and self-confidence. The type of research is quantitative, and data was collected from all government girls’ degree colleges of Quetta city (the capital of Balochistan province) under the age of 18. Two hundred (200) Students of all FA arts faculty (first year) were selected through simple random sampling (fishbowl draw). Data were analyzed by SPSS, and a coefficient test was applied to test the hypothesis. The regression of coefficient has a significant association between gender discrimination and basic needs (P-value =.000). The results showed that women are underprivileged from all basic needs (fundamental rights) of life, which are entitled to everyone by their birth because of male preference that creates gender disparity between men and women.

Keywords: Discrimination, basic needs, value of women at home, hurdles of women

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
3 Effects of Different Thermal Processing Routes and Their Parameters on the Formation of Voids in PA6 Bonded Aluminum Joints

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Guillermo Requena, Jan Haubrich

Abstract:

Adhesively bonded aluminum joints are common in automotive and aircraft industries and are one of the enablers of lightweight construction to minimize the carbon emissions during transportation for a sustainable life. This study is focused on the effects of two thermal processing routes, i.e., by direct and induction heating, and their parameters on void formation in PA6 bonded aluminum EN-AW6082 joints. The joints were characterized microanalytically as well as by lap shear experiments. The aging resistance of the joints was studied by accelerated aging tests at 80°C hot water. It was found that the processing of single lap joints by direct heating in a convection oven causes the formation of a large number of voids in the bond line. The formation of voids in the convection oven was due to longer processing times and was independent of any surface pretreatments of the metal as well as the processing temperature. However, when processing at low temperatures, a large number of small-sized voids were observed under the optical microscope, and they were larger in size but reduced in numbers at higher temperatures. An induction heating process was developed, which not only successfully reduced or eliminated the voids in PA6 bonded joints but also reduced the processing times for joining significantly. Consistent with the trend in direct heating, longer processing times and higher temperatures in induction heating also led to an increased formation of voids in the bond line. Subsequent single lap shear tests revealed that the increasing void contents led to a 21% reduction in lap shear strengths (i.e., from ~47 MPa for induction heating to ~37 MPa for direct heating). Also, there was a 17% reduction in lap shear strengths when the consolidation temperature was raised from 220˚C to 300˚C during induction heating. However, below a certain threshold of void contents, there was no observable effect on the lap shear strengths as well as on hydrothermal aging resistance of the joints consolidated by the induction heating process.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Induction Heating, Aluminium, Pretreatment, adhesive, void, convection oven, nylon6 (PA6)

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2 Islamic Extremist Groups' Usage of Populism in Social Media to Radicalize Muslim Migrants in Europe

Authors: Muhammad Irfan

Abstract:

The rise of radicalization within Islam has spawned a new era of global terror. The battlefield Successes of ISIS and the Taliban are fuelled by an ideological war waged, largely and successfully, in the media arena. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are using media modalities and populist narratives to influence migrant Muslim populations in Europe towards extremism. In 2014, ISIS shocked the world in exporting horrifically graphic forms of violence on social media. Their Muslim support base was largely disgusted and reviled. In response, they reconfigured their narrative by introducing populist 'hooks', astutely portraying the Muslim populous as oppressed and exploited by unjust, corrupt autocratic regimes and Western power structures. Within this crucible of real and perceived oppression, hundreds of thousands of the most desperate, vulnerable and abused migrants left their homelands, risking their lives in the hope of finding peace, justice, and prosperity in Europe. Instead, many encountered social stigmatization, detention and/or discrimination for being illegal migrants, for lacking resources and for simply being Muslim. This research will examine how Islamic extremist groups are exploiting the disenfranchisement of these migrant populations and using populist messaging on social media to influence them towards violent extremism. ISIS, in particular, formulates specific encoded messages for newly-arriving Muslims in Europe, preying upon their vulnerability. Violence is posited, as a populist response, to the tyranny of European oppression. This research will analyze the factors and indicators which propel Muslim migrants along the spectrum from resilience to violence extremism. Expected outcomes are identification of factors which influence vulnerability towards violent extremism; an early-warning detection framework; predictive analysis models; and de-radicalization frameworks. This research will provide valuable tools (practical and policy level) for European governments, security stakeholders, communities, policy-makers, and educators; it is anticipated to contribute to a de-escalation of Islamic extremism globally.

Keywords: Social Media, Islam, Terrorism, Political Communication, Refugees, Models, Europe, Extremism, migrants, Jihad, Radicalization, Islamic Extremism, Strategic Communication, Populism, predictive analysis, Taliban, Shariah, ISIS, de-radicalization, global terror, early warning detection, populist narratives

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1 Design of Traffic Counting Android Application with Database Management System and Its Comparative Analysis with Traditional Counting Methods

Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Nouman, Fahad Tiwana, Mohsin Tiwana

Abstract:

Traffic congestion has been increasing significantly in major metropolitan areas as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth and changes in the urban density. Traffic congestion compromises efficiency of transport infrastructure and causes multiple traffic concerns; including but not limited to increase of travel time, safety hazards, air pollution, and fuel consumption. Traffic management has become a serious challenge for federal and provincial governments, as well as exasperated commuters. Effective, flexible, efficient and user-friendly traffic information/database management systems characterize traffic conditions by making use of traffic counts for storage, processing, and visualization. While, the emerging data collection technologies continue to proliferate, its accuracy can be guaranteed through the comparison of observed data with the manual handheld counters. This paper presents the design of tablet based manual traffic counting application and framework for development of traffic database management system for Pakistan. The database management system comprises of three components including traffic counting android application; establishing online database and its visualization using Google maps. Oracle relational database was chosen to develop the data structure whereas structured query language (SQL) was adopted to program the system architecture. The GIS application links the data from the database and projects it onto a dynamic map for traffic conditions visualization. The traffic counting device and example of a database application in the real-world problem provided a creative outlet to visualize the uses and advantages of a database management system in real time. Also, traffic data counts by means of handheld tablet/ mobile application can be used for transportation planning and forecasting.

Keywords: Traffic Management, Traffic Surveillance, manual count, emerging data sources, traffic information quality, traffic counting device, android; data visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 28