Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abhijit Mitra

Committee: International Scientific Committee of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
University: Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati
Department: Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Research Fields: Wireless Communication, Digital Signal Processing, Statistical Signal Processing

Publications

18 On the Effectivity of Different Pseudo-Noise and Orthogonal Sequences for Speech Encryption from Correlation Properties

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, V. Anil Kumar, S. R. Mahadeva Prasanna

Abstract:

We analyze the effectivity of different pseudo noise (PN) and orthogonal sequences for encrypting speech signals in terms of perceptual intelligence. Speech signal can be viewed as sequence of correlated samples and each sample as sequence of bits. The residual intelligibility of the speech signal can be reduced by removing the correlation among the speech samples. PN sequences have random like properties that help in reducing the correlation among speech samples. The mean square aperiodic auto-correlation (MSAAC) and the mean square aperiodic cross-correlation (MSACC) measures are used to test the randomness of the PN sequences. Results of the investigation show the effectivity of large Kasami sequences for this purpose among many PN sequences.

Keywords: Gold, autocorrelation, speech encryption, Kasami, pseudo-noise codes, maximallength, Barker, Walsh-Hadamard, crosscorrelation, figure of merit

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17 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.

Keywords: Gold, autocorrelation, code division multiple access, Kasami, pseudo-noise codes, Barker, Walsh-Hadamard, crosscorrelation, figure of merit, maximal length

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16 An Investigation on Efficient Spreading Codes for Transmitter Based Techniques to Mitigate MAI and ISI in TDD/CDMA Downlink

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We investigate efficient spreading codes for transmitter based techniques of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The channel is considered to be known at the transmitter which is usual in a time division duplex (TDD) system where the channel is assumed to be the same on uplink and downlink. For such a TDD/CDMA system, both bitwise and blockwise multiuser transmission schemes are taken up where complexity is transferred to the transmitter side so that the receiver has minimum complexity. Different spreading codes are considered at the transmitter to spread the signal efficiently over the entire spectrum. The bit error rate (BER) curves portray the efficiency of the codes in presence of multiple access interference (MAI) as well as inter symbol interference (ISI).

Keywords: Precoding, code division multiple access, spreading code, time division duplex, transmitter technique, pre-rake, rake

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15 On the Properties of Pseudo Noise Sequences with a Simple Proposal of Randomness Test

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Maximal length sequences (m-sequences) are also known as pseudo random sequences or pseudo noise sequences for closely following Golomb-s popular randomness properties: (P1) balance, (P2) run, and (P3) ideal autocorrelation. Apart from these, there also exist certain other less known properties of such sequences all of which are discussed in this tutorial paper. Comprehensive proofs to each of these properties are provided towards better understanding of such sequences. A simple test is also proposed at the end of the paper in order to distinguish pseudo noise sequences from truly random sequences such as Bernoulli sequences.

Keywords: maximal length sequence, pseudo noise sequence, punctured de Bruijn sequence, auto-correlation, Bernoulli sequence, randomness tests

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14 On the Construction of m-Sequences via Primitive Polynomials with a Fast Identification Method

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

The paper provides an in-depth tutorial of mathematical construction of maximal length sequences (m-sequences) via primitive polynomials and how to map the same when implemented in shift registers. It is equally important to check whether a polynomial is primitive or not so as to get proper m-sequences. A fast method to identify primitive polynomials over binary fields is proposed where the complexity is considerably less in comparison with the standard procedures for the same purpose.

Keywords: finite field, irreducible polynomial, primitive polynomial, maximal length sequence, additive shift register, multiplicative shift register

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13 On Finite Wordlength Properties of Block-Floating-Point Arithmetic

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

A special case of floating point data representation is block floating point format where a block of operands are forced to have a joint exponent term. This paper deals with the finite wordlength properties of this data format. The theoretical errors associated with the error model for block floating point quantization process is investigated with the help of error distribution functions. A fast and easy approximation formula for calculating signal-to-noise ratio in quantization to block floating point format is derived. This representation is found to be a useful compromise between fixed point and floating point format due to its acceptable numerical error properties over a wide dynamic range.

Keywords: Block floating point, Roundoff error, Block exponent dis-tribution fuction, Signal factor

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12 A Reduced-Bit Multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetic

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Harpreet Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

A reduced-bit multiplication algorithm based on the ancient Vedic multiplication formulae is proposed in this paper. Both the Vedic multiplication formulae, Urdhva tiryakbhyam and Nikhilam, are first discussed in detail. Urdhva tiryakbhyam, being a general multiplication formula, is equally applicable to all cases of multiplication. It is applied to the digital arithmetic and is shown to yield a multiplier architecture which is very similar to the popular array multiplier. Due to its structure, it leads to a high carry propagation delay in case of multiplication of large numbers. Nikhilam Sutra, on the other hand, is more efficient in the multiplication of large numbers as it reduces the multiplication of two large numbers to that of two smaller numbers. The framework of the proposed algorithm is taken from this Sutra and is further optimized by use of some general arithmetic operations such as expansion and bit-shifting to take advantage of bit-reduction in multiplication. We illustrate the proposed algorithm by reducing a general 4x4-bit multiplication to a single 2 x 2-bit multiplication operation.

Keywords: Algorithm, multiplication, Vedic mathematics, digital arithmetic, reduced-bit

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11 Automatic Authentication of Handwritten Documents via Low Density Pixel Measurements

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, Pranab Kumar Banerjee

Abstract:

We introduce an effective approach for automatic offline au- thentication of handwritten samples where the forgeries are skillfully done, i.e., the true and forgery sample appearances are almost alike. Subtle details of temporal information used in online verification are not available offline and are also hard to recover robustly. Thus the spatial dynamic information like the pen-tip pressure characteristics are considered, emphasizing on the extraction of low density pixels. The points result from the ballistic rhythm of a genuine signature which a forgery, however skillful that may be, always lacks. Ten effective features, including these low density points and den- sity ratio, are proposed to make the distinction between a true and a forgery sample. An adaptive decision criteria is also derived for better verification judgements.

Keywords: Handwritten document verification, Skilled forgeries, Low density pixels, Adaptive decision boundary

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10 Restoration of Noisy Document Images with an Efficient Bi-Level Adaptive Thresholding

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

An effective approach for extracting document images from a noisy background is introduced. The entire scheme is divided into three sub- stechniques – the initial preprocessing operations for noise cluster tightening, introduction of a new thresholding method by maximizing the ratio of stan- dard deviations of the combined effect on the image to the sum of weighted classes and finally the image restoration phase by image binarization utiliz- ing the proposed optimum threshold level. The proposed method is found to be efficient compared to the existing schemes in terms of computational complexity as well as speed with better noise rejection.

Keywords: preprocessing, Document image extraction, Ratio of stan-dard deviations, Bi-level adaptive thresholding

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9 A New Block-based NLMS Algorithm and Its Realization in Block Floating Point Format

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

we propose a new normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm, which gives satisfactory performance in certain applications in comaprison with con-ventional NLMS recursion. This new algorithm can be treated as a block based simplification of NLMS algorithm with significantly reduced number of multi¬ply and accumulate as well as division operations. It is also shown that such a recursion can be easily implemented in block floating point (BFP) arithmetic, treating the implementational issues much efficiently. In particular, the core challenges of a BFP realization to such adaptive filters are mainly considered in this regard. A global upper bound on the step size control parameter of the new algorithm due to BFP implementation is also proposed to prevent overflow in filtering as well as weight updating operations jointly.

Keywords: implementation issues, adaptive algorithm, Block floating point arithmetic, Normalized least mean square methods

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8 Evaluating Sinusoidal Functions by a Low Complexity Cubic Spline Interpolator with Error Optimization

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Harpreet Singh Dhillon

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to evaluate sinusoidal functions with low complexity and high precision using cubic spline interpolation. To this end, two different approaches are proposed to find the interpolating polynomial of sin(x) within the range [- π , π]. The first one deals with only a single data point while the other with two to keep the realization cost as low as possible. An approximation error optimization technique for cubic spline interpolation is introduced next and is shown to increase the interpolator accuracy without increasing complexity of the associated hardware. The architectures for the proposed approaches are also developed, which exhibit flexibility of implementation with low power requirement.

Keywords: Optimization methods, Arithmetic, Hardware Design, spline interpolator, erroranalysis

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7 A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, K. Murali Krishna

Abstract:

This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.

Keywords: code division multiple access, RAKE receiver, ModifiedWalsh-Hadamard codes, Single correlator

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6 Efficient Realization of an ADFE with a New Adaptive Algorithm

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, N. Praveen Kumar

Abstract:

Decision feedback equalizers are commonly employed to reduce the error caused by intersymbol interference. Here, an adaptive decision feedback equalizer is presented with a new adaptation algorithm. The algorithm follows a block-based approach of normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm with set-membership filtering and achieves a significantly less computational complexity over its conventional NLMS counterpart with set-membership filtering. It is shown in the results that the proposed algorithm yields similar type of bit error rate performance over a reasonable signal to noise ratio in comparison with the latter one.

Keywords: adaptive algorithm, Decision feedback equalizer, Block based computation, Set membership filtering

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5 Recognition of Isolated Speech Signals using Simplified Statistical Parameters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Biswajoy Chatterjee

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to recognize isolated speech signals using certain statistical parameters derived from those signals. The determination of the statistical estimates is based on extracted signal information rather than the original signal information in order to reduce the computational complexity. Subtle details of these estimates, after extracting the speech signal from ambience noise, are first exploited to segregate the polysyllabic words from the monosyllabic ones. Precise recognition of each distinct word is then carried out by analyzing the histogram, obtained from these information.

Keywords: Isolated speech signals, Block overlapping technique, Positive peaks, Histogram analysis

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4 A New Digital Transceiver Circuit for Asynchronous Communication

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Aakash Subramanian, Vansh Pal Singh Makh

Abstract:

A new digital transceiver circuit for asynchronous frame detection is proposed where both the transmitter and receiver contain all digital components, thereby avoiding possible use of conventional devices like monostable multivibrators with unstable external components such as resistances and capacitances. The proposed receiver circuit, in particular, uses a combinational logic block yielding an output which changes its state as soon as the start bit of a new frame is detected. This, in turn, helps in generating an efficient receiver sampling clock. A data latching circuit is also used in the receiver to latch the recovered data bits in any new frame. The proposed receiver structure is also extended from 4- bit information to any general n data bits within a frame with a common expression for the output of the combinational logic block. Performance of the proposed hardware design is evaluated in terms of time delay, reliability and robustness in comparison with the standard schemes using monostable multivibrators. It is observed from hardware implementation that the proposed circuit achieves almost 33 percent speed up over any conventional circuit.

Keywords: Asynchronous Communication, Digital Detector, Combinational logic output, Sampling clock generator, Hardwareimplementation

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3 A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil, M. Naresh Kumar

Abstract:

A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.

Keywords: Adaptive Channel Estimation, bit error rate, Tomlinson-Harashima precoder, Indoor wireless communication

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2 A Finite Precision Block Floating Point Treatment to Direct Form, Cascaded and Parallel FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient finite precision block floating point (BFP) treatment to the fixed coefficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. The treatment includes effective implementation of all the three forms of the conventional FIR filters, namely, direct form, cascaded and par- allel, and a roundoff error analysis of them in the BFP format. An effective block formatting algorithm together with an adaptive scaling factor is pro- posed to make the realizations more simple from hardware view point. To this end, a generic relation between the tap weight vector length and the input block length is deduced. The implementation scheme also emphasises on a simple block exponent update technique to prevent overflow even during the block to block transition phase. The roundoff noise is also investigated along the analogous lines, taking into consideration these implementational issues. The simulation results show that the BFP roundoff errors depend on the sig- nal level almost in the same way as floating point roundoff noise, resulting in approximately constant signal to noise ratio over a relatively large dynamic range.

Keywords: Roundoff error, Block floating point arithmetic, Finite impulse response digital filters, Cascade structure, Parallel structure

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1 Sonic Localization Cues for Classrooms: A Structural Model Proposal

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We investigate sonic cues for binaural sound localization within classrooms and present a structural model for the same. Two of the primary cues for localization, interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) created between the two ears by sounds from a particular point in space, are used. Although these cues do not lend any information about the elevation of a sound source, the torso, head, and outer ear carry out elevation dependent spectral filtering of sounds before they reach the inner ear. This effect is commonly captured in head related transfer function (HRTF) which aids in resolving the ambiguity from the ITDs and ILDs alone and helps localize sounds in free space. The proposed structural model of HRTF produces well controlled horizontal as well as vertical effects. The implemented HRTF is a signal processing model which tries to mimic the physical effects of the sounds interacting with different parts of the body. The effectiveness of the method is tested by synthesizing spatial audio, in MATLAB, for use in listening tests with human subjects and is found to yield satisfactory results in comparison with existing models.

Keywords: Auditory localization, Binaural sound, Head related impulse response, Head related transfer function, Interaural level difference, Interaural time difference, Localization cues

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Abstracts

1 Suitability of Green Macroalgae Porteresia coarctata as a Feed Form Macrobrachium rosenbergii

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Rajrupa Ghosh

Abstract:

Future use of animal protein sources in prawn feeds is expected to be considerably reduced as a consequence of increasing economical, environmental and safety issues. Of main concern has been the use of expensive marine protein sources, such as fish meal which often results in fouling of water quality and disease outbreak in cultured species. To determine prawn capacity to use practical feeds with plant proteins as replacement ingredients to animal protein sources, 8-months growth trial was conducted in two sets of ponds using juvenile (0.02 gm) Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Among the two sets, one set (comprising of three ponds) is experimental pond included formulated feed prepared with 30% Porteresia coarctata dust along with other general ingredients and another set (comprising of another three ponds) is control pond with commercial feed. Mean final weight, percent weight gain, final net yield, feed conversion ratio and survival were evaluated. Higher condition index values, survival rate and gain in prawn weight were observed in experimental pond compared to control pond. Low FCR values were observed in the experimental pond than the control pond. Evaluation of production parameters at the end of the study demonstrated significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) among two ponds. The variation may be attributed to specially formulated plant based feed that not only boosted up the growth of prawns, but also upgraded the ambient aquatic health. These results indicate that fish meal can be replaced with algal protein sources in diets without affecting prawn growth and production.

Keywords: feed, macrobrachium rosenbergii, porteresia coarctata, Indian sundarbans

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