Ahmed R. Ballil

Publications

1 Evaluation of the Accuracy of Time of Arrival Source Location Algorithm of Acoustic Emission in Concrete-Mortar Structure

Authors: Ahmed R. Ballil, Hisham A. Elfergani, Ayad A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Acoustic Emission (AE) is one of the most effective non-destructive tests that can be used to detect the defect process as it is occurring. AE techniques can be used to monitor a wide range of structures and materials such as metals, non-metals and combinations of these when load is applied. The current work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of TOA method in AE tests involving reinforced composite concrete-mortar structures. A series of experimental tests were performed using the Hsu-Neilson (H-N) source to study 2-D location accuracy using this method on concrete-mortar (400×400 mm) specimens. Four AE sensors (R3I – resonant frequency 30 kHz) were mounted to the mortar surface and six sources were performed at each point of preselected locations on the upper surface of the mortar. Results show that the TOA method can be used effectively to locate signals on composite concrete/mortar specimen and has high accuracy.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Reinforced Concrete, time of arrival, acoustic emission

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Abstracts

2 Thermal and Hydraulic Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Authors: Ahmed R. Ballil

Abstract:

Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer heat between two fluids. These devices are utilized in many engineering and industrial applications such as heating, cooling, condensation and boiling processes. The fluids might be in direct contact (mixed), or they separated by a solid wall to avoid mixing. In the present paper, interactive computer-aided design of shell and tube heat exchangers is developed using Visual Basic computer code as a framework. This design is based on the Bell-Delaware method, which is one of the very well known methods reported in the literature for the design of shell and tube heat exchangers. Physical properties for either the tube or the shell side fluids are internally evaluated by calling on an enormous data bank composed of more than a hundred fluid compounds. This contributes to increase the accuracy of the present design. The international system of units is considered in the developed computer program. The present design has an added feature of being capable of performing modification based upon a preset design criterion, such that an optimum design is obtained at satisfying constraints set either by the user or by the method itself. Also, the present code is capable of giving an estimate of the approximate cost of the heat exchanger based on the predicted surface area of the exchanger evaluated by the program. Finally, the present thermal and hydraulic design code is tested for accuracy and consistency against some of existed and approved designs of shell and tube heat exchangers.

Keywords: Heat Exchangers, shell and tube, bell-delaware method, thermal and hydraulic design

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1 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis of Air Bubble Rising in a Column of Liquid

Authors: Baha-aldeen S. Algmati, Ahmed R. Ballil

Abstract:

Multiphase flows occur widely in many engineering and industrial processes as well as in the environment we live in. In particular, bubbly flows are considered to be crucial phenomena in fluid flow applications and can be studied and analyzed experimentally, analytically, and computationally. In the present paper, the dynamic motion of an air bubble rising within a column of liquid is numerically simulated using an open-source CFD modeling tool 'OpenFOAM'. An interface tracking numerical algorithm called MULES algorithm, which is built-in OpenFOAM, is chosen to solve an appropriate mathematical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical method. The bubbles initially have a spherical shape and starting from rest in the stagnant column of liquid. The algorithm is initially verified against numerical results and is also validated against available experimental data. The comparison revealed that this algorithm provides results that are in a very good agreement with the 2D numerical data of other CFD codes. Also, the results of the bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained from the 3D numerical simulation showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The simulated rising bubbles yield a very small percentage of error in the bubble terminal velocity compared with the experimental data. The obtained results prove the capability of OpenFOAM as a powerful tool to predict the behavior of rising characteristics of the spherical bubbles in the stagnant column of liquid. This will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of the rise of bubbles in liquids.

Keywords: Multiphase Flows, CFD simulations, VOF, volume of fluid method, openFOAM, rise of bubble

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