Pattra Wattanapan


2 The Use of Five Times Sit-To-Stand Test in Ambulatory People with Spinal Cord Injury When Tested with or without Hands

Authors: Pattra Wattanapan, Lalita Khuna, Sugalya Amatachaya, Pipatana Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij


The five times sit-to-stand test (FTSST) has been widely used to quantify lower extremity motor strength (LEMS), dynamic balance ability, and risk of falls in many individuals. Recently, it has been used in ambulatory patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) but variously using with or without hands according to patients’ ability. This difference might affect the validity of the test in these individuals. Thus, this study assessed the concurrent validity of the FTSST in ambulatory individuals with SCI, separately for those who could complete the test with or without hands using LEMS and standard functional measures as gold standards. Moreover, the data of the tests from those who completed the FTSST with and without hands were compared. A total of 56 ambulatory participants with SCI who could complete sit-to-stand with or without hands were assessed for the time to complete the FTSST according to their ability. Then they were assessed for their LEMS scores and functional abilities, including the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the different findings between the participants who performed the FTSST with and without hands. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was applied to analyze the levels of correlation between the FTSST and standard tests (LEMS scores and functional measures). There were significant differences in the data between the participants who performed the test with and without hands (p < 0.01). The time to complete the FTSST of the participants who performed the test without hands showed moderate to strong correlation with total LEMS scores and all functional measures (ρ = -0.71 to 0.69, p < 0.001). On the contrary, the FTSST data of those who performed the test with hands were significantly correlated only with the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT (ρ = -0.47 to 0.57, p < 0.01). The present findings confirm the concurrent validity of the FTSST when performed without hands for LEMS and functional mobility necessary for the ability of independence and safety of ambulatory individuals with SCI. However, the test using hands distort the ability of the outcomes to reflect LEMS and WISCI II that reflect lower limb functions. By contrast, the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT allowed upper limb contribution in the tests. Therefore, outcomes of these tests showed a significant correlation to the outcomes of FTSST when assessed using hands. Consequently, the use of FTSST with or without hands needs to consider the clinical application of the outcomes, i.e., to reflect lower limb functions or mobility of the patients.

Keywords: Mobility, Rehabilitation, lower limb muscle strength, clinical test

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1 Outcome of Bowel Management Program in Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Roongtiwa Chobchuen, Angkana Srikhan, Pattra Wattanapan


Background: Neurogenic bowel is common condition after spinal cord injury. Most of spinal cord injured patients have motor weakness, mobility impairment which leads to constipation. Moreover, the neural pathway involving bowel function is interrupted. Therefore, the bowel management program should be implemented in nursing care in the earliest time after the onset of the disease to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the outcome of bowel management program of the patients with spinal cord injury who admitted for rehabilitation program. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Rehabilitation ward in Srinagarind Hospital. Populations: patients with subacute to chronic spinal cord injury who admitted at rehabilitation ward, Srinagarind hospital, aged over 18 years old. Instrument: The neurogenic bowel dysfunction score (NBDS) was used to determine the severity of neurogenic bowel. Procedure and statistical analysis: All participants were asked to complete the demographic data; age gender, duration of disease, diagnosis. The individual bowel function was assessed using NBDS at admission. The patients and caregivers were trained by nurses about the bowel management program which consisted of diet modification, abdominal massage, digital stimulation, stool evacuation including medication and physical activity. The outcome of the bowel management program was assessed by NBDS at discharge. The chi-square test was used to detect the difference in severity of neurogenic bowel at admission and discharge. Results: Sixteen spinal cord injured patients were enrolled in the study (age 45 ± 17 years old, 69% were male). Most of them (50%) were tetraplegia. On the admission, 12.5%, 12.5%, 43.75% and 31.25% were categorized as very minor (NBDS 0-6), minor (NBDS 7-9), moderate (NBDS 10-13) and severe (NBDS 14+) respectively. The severity of neurogenic bowel was decreased significantly at discharge (56.25%, 18.755%, 18.75% and 6.25% for very minor, minor, moderate and severe group respectively; p < 0.001) compared with NBDS at admission. Conclusions: Implementation of the effective bowel program decrease the severity of the neurogenic bowel in patient with spinal cord injury.

Keywords: Spinal Cord Injury, neurogenic bowel, NBDS, bowel program

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