A. Majczak


3 Research of Actuators of Common Rail Injection Systems with the Use of LabVIEW on a Specially Designed Test Bench

Authors: M. Wendeker, G. Barański, A. Majczak


Currently, the most commonly used solution to provide fuel to the diesel engines is the Common Rail system. Compared to previous designs, as a due to relatively simple construction and electronic control systems, these systems allow achieving favourable engine operation parameters with particular emphasis on low emission of toxic compounds into the atmosphere. In this system, the amount of injected fuel dose is strictly dependent on the course of parameters of the electrical impulse sent by the power amplifier power supply system injector from the engine controller. The article presents the construction of a laboratory test bench to examine the course of the injection process and the expense in storage injection systems. The test bench enables testing of injection systems with electromagnetically controlled injectors with the use of scientific engineering tools. The developed system is based on LabView software and CompactRIO family controller using FPGA systems and a real time microcontroller. The results of experimental research on electromagnetic injectors of common rail system, controlled by a dedicated National Instruments card, confirm the effectiveness of the presented approach. The results of the research described in the article present the influence of basic parameters of the electric impulse opening the electromagnetic injector on the value of the injected fuel dose. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: labview, controller, compression ignition engine, combustion engine, fuel injector, fuel pressure, power supply system

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2 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: K. Pietrykowski, G. Barański, A. Majczak


Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: Aircraft, Engine Testing, diesel, opposed piston

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1 Solar-Assisted City Bus Electrical Installation: Opportunities and Impact on the Environment in Sydney

Authors: M. J. Geca, T. Tulwin, A. Majczak


On-board electricity consumption in the diesel city bus during operation is an important energy source. Electricity is generated by a combustion engine-driven alternator. Increased fuel consumption to generate on-board electricity in the bus has a negative impact on the emission of toxic components and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the bus roof surface allows placing a set of lightweight photovoltaic panels with power from 1 to 1.5 kW. The article presents an experimental study of electricity consumption of a city bus with diesel engine equipped with photovoltaic installation. The stream of electricity consumed by the bus and generated by a standard alternator and PV system was recorded. Base on the experimental research carried out in central Europe; the article analyses the impact of an additional source of electricity in the form of a photovoltaic installation on fuel consumption and emissions of toxic components of vehicles located in the latitude of Sydney. In Poland, the maximum global value of horizontal irradiation GHI is 1150 kWh/m², while for Sydney 1652 kWh/m². In addition, the profile of temperature and sunshine per year is different for these two different latitudes as presented in the article. Electricity generated directly from the sun powers the bus's electrical receivers. The photovoltaic system is able to replace 23% of annual electricity consumption, which at the same time will reduce 4% of fuel consumption and CO₂ reduction. Approximately 25% of the light is lost during vehicle traffic in Sydney latitude. The temperature losses of photovoltaic panels are comparable due to the cooling during vehicle motion. Acknowledgement: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology - Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: CO2, Electric Energy, Fuel Consumption, Photovoltaic System

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