F. Pires


2 Biomimetic Systems to Reveal the Action Mode of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Lipid Membrane

Authors: F. Pires, V. Geraldo, O. N. Oliveira Jr., M. Raposo


Catechins are powerful antioxidants which have attractive properties useful for tumor therapy. Considering their antioxidant activity, these molecules can act as a scavenger of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), alleviating the damage of cell membrane induced by oxidative stress. The complexity and dynamic nature of the cell membrane compromise the analysis of the biophysical interactions between drug and cell membrane and restricts the transport or uptake of the drug by intracellular targets. To avoid the cell membrane complexity, we used biomimetic systems as liposomes and Langmuir monolayers to study the interaction between catechin and membranes at the molecular level. Liposomes were formed after the dispersion of anionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)(sodium salt) (DPPG) phospholipids in an aqueous solution, which mimic the arrangement of lipids in natural cell membranes and allows the entrapment of catechins. Langmuir monolayers were formed after dropping amphiphilic molecules, DPPG phospholipids, dissolved in an organic solvent onto the water surface. In this work, we mixed epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with DPPG liposomes and exposed them to ultra-violet radiation in order to evaluate the antioxidant potential of these molecules against oxidative stress induced by radiation. The presence of EGCG in the mixture decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation, proving that EGCG protects membranes through the quenching of the reactive oxygen species. Considering the high amount of hydroxyl groups (OH groups) on structure of EGCG, a possible mechanism to these molecules interact with membrane is through hydrogen bonding. We also investigated the effect of EGCG at various concentrations on DPPG Langmuir monolayers. The surface pressure isotherms and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) results corroborate with absorbance results preformed on liposome-model, showing that EGCG interacts with polar heads of the monolayers. This study elucidates the physiological action of EGCG which can be incorporated in lipid membrane. These results are also relevant for the improvement of the current protocols used to incorporate catechins in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Molecular Interactions, catechins, lipid membrane, anticancer agent

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1 Optimization of Smart Beta Allocation by Momentum Exposure

Authors: J. B. Frisch, D. Evandiloff, P. Martin, N. Ouizille, F. Pires


Smart Beta strategies intend to be an asset management revolution with reference to classical cap-weighted indices. Indeed, these strategies allow a better control on portfolios risk factors and an optimized asset allocation by taking into account specific risks or wishes to generate alpha by outperforming indices called 'Beta'. Among many strategies independently used, this paper focuses on four of them: Minimum Variance Portfolio, Equal Risk Contribution Portfolio, Maximum Diversification Portfolio, and Equal-Weighted Portfolio. Their efficiency has been proven under constraints like momentum or market phenomenon, suggesting a reconsideration of cap-weighting.
 To further increase strategy return efficiency, it is proposed here to compare their strengths and weaknesses inside time intervals corresponding to specific identifiable market phases, in order to define adapted strategies depending on pre-specified situations. 
Results are presented as performance curves from different combinations compared to a benchmark. If a combination outperforms the applicable benchmark in well-defined actual market conditions, it will be preferred. It is mainly shown that such investment 'rules', based on both historical data and evolution of Smart Beta strategies, and implemented according to available specific market data, are providing very interesting optimal results with higher return performance and lower risk.
 Such combinations have not been fully exploited yet and justify present approach aimed at identifying relevant elements characterizing them.

Keywords: combinations, smart beta, minimum variance portfolio, equal risk contribution portfolio, maximum diversification portfolio, equal weighted portfolio

Procedia PDF Downloads 199