J. Pluncevic


4 Body Composition Analyser Parameters and Their Comparison with Manual Measurements

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, V. Antevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: Medical checking assessment is important in sports medicine. To follow the health condition in subjects who perform sports, body composition parameters, such as intracellular water, extracellular water, protein and mineral content, muscle and fat mass might be useful. The aim of the study was to show available parameters and to compare them to manual assessment. Material and methods: A number of 20 subjects (14 male and 6 female) at age of 20±2 years were determined in the study, 5 performed recreational sports, while others were professional ones. The mean height was 175±7 cm, the mean weight was 72±9 cm, and the body mass index (BMI) was 23±2 kg/m2. The measured compartments were as following: intracellular water (IW), extracellular water (EW), protein component (PC), mineral component (MC), skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and body fat mass (BFM). Lean balance were examined for right and left arm (LA), trunk (T), right leg (RL) and left leg (LL). The comparison was made between the calculation derived by manual made measurements, using Matejka formula and parameters obtained by body composition analyzer (BCA) - Inbody 720 BCA Biospace. Used parameters for the comparison were muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass (BFM). Results: BCA obtained values were for: IW - 22.6±5L, EW - 13.5±2 L, PC - 9.8±0.9 kg, MC - 3.5±0.3, SMM - 27±3 kg, BFM - 13.8±4 kg. Lean balance showed following values for: RA - 2.45±0.2 kg, LA - 2.37±0.4, T - 20.9±5 kg, RL - 7.43±1 kg, and LL - 7.49 ±1.5 kg. SMM showed statistical difference between manual obtained value, 51±01% to BCA parameter 45.5±3% (p<0.001). Manual obtained values for BFM was lower (17±2%) than BCA obtained one, 19.5±5.9% (p<0.02). Discussion: The obtained results showed appropriate values for the examined age, regarding to all examined parameters which contribute to overview the body compartments, important for sport performing. Due to comparison between the manual and BCA assessment, we may conclude that manual measurements may differ from the certain ones, which is confirmed by statistical significance.

Keywords: Sports Medicine, Body Composition, athletes, bio electrical impedance

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3 Oxidative Stress Markers in Sports Related to Training

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: The aim of this study was to optimise the laboratory oxidative stress (OS) markers in soccer players. Material and methods: In a number of 37 soccer players (21±3 years old) and 25 control subjects (sedenters), plasma samples were taken for d-ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) and NO (nitric oxide) determination. The d-ROMs test was performed by measurement of hydroperoxide levels (Diacron, Italy). For NO determination the method of nitrate enzyme reduction with the Greiss reagent was used (OXIS, USA). The parameters were taken after the training of the soccer players and were compared with the control group. Training was considered as maximal exercise treadmill test. The criteria of maximum loading for each subject was established as >95% maximal heart rate. Results: The level of d-ROMs was found to be increased in the soccer players vs. control group but no significant difference was noticed. After the training d-ROMs in soccer players showed increased value of 299±44 UCarr (p<0.05). NO showed increased level in all soccer players vs. controls but significant difference was found after the training 102±29 μmol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to these results we may suggest that the measuring these OS markers in sport medicine may be useful for better estimation and evaluation of the training program. More oxidative stress should be used to clarify optimization of the training intensity program.

Keywords: Sport, training, oxidative stress markers, soccer players

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2 Anthropometry in Macedonian Senior Football and Basketball Players

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karadjozova


Objective: The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe anthropometric and performance characteristics and to explore their differences between senior football (F) and basketball (B) players. Subjects and methods: 25 F (aged 23±2.5 y) and 25 B (aged 22±4.2 y) from Macedonian national teams and elite sport clubs were annually tested during 2 consecutive years. Full anthropometric profiles (stature, weight, five circumferences, four bone diameters, seven skin-folds and nine calculated parameters with standard formulas) were collected. Body composition was determined with InBody720 System. Physical capacity was tested with ergo metric test of Bruce (Custo med GmbH, Germany). Results: B were taller (p<0.001) and heavier (p<0.01), but leaner (p<0.001). F had higher percentage of muscle mass (p<0.01) and body fat (p< 0.001). F had higher VO2max (p<0.05) and lower hard rate (p<0.01). The differences in physical performance were not significant (p>0.05) within the groups during the 2-years period. Conclusions: These results suggest that there are distinct differences in anthropometric profile between Macedonian senior football and basketball players during the two competitive seasons.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Basketball Players, football players, Macedonia

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1 Exercise and Aging Process Related to Oxidative Stress

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: Aging process is mainly related to endothelial function which may be impaired by oxidative stress (OS). Exercise is known to be beneficial to aging process, which may improve health and prevent appearance of chronic diseases in elderly. The aim of the study was to investigate the OS markers related to exercise. Methods: A number of 80 subjects (healthy volunteers) were examined (38 male and 32 female), divided in 3 age groups: group I ≤ 30 years (n=24); group II – 31-50 years (n=24); group III - ≥ 51 year (n=32). Each group was divided to subgroups of sedentary subjects (SS) and subjects who exercise (SE). Group I: SS (n=11), SE (n=13); group II: SS (n=13), SE (n=10); group III: SS (n=23) SE (n=9). Lipid peroxidation (LP) as a fluorimetric method with thiobarbituric acid was used to estimate OS. Antioxidative status was determined by cell antioxidants such as enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glucose 6 phosphate (G-6-PD); and by extra cell antioxidants such as glutathione reductase (GR), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Results: Increased values of LP were noticed along the aging process: group I – 3.30±0.3 µmol/L; group II – 3.91±0.2 µmol/L; group III – 3.94±0.8 µmol/L (p<0.05), while no statistical significance was found between male and female subjects. Statistical significance for OS was not found between SS and SE in group I as it was found in group II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.01). No statistical significance was found for all cell antioxidants and GR within the groups, while NO and TAC showed lower values in SS compared to SE in II (p<0.05) and in group III (p<0.05). Discussion and conclusion: Aging process showed increased OS which may be either due to impaired function of scavengers of free radicals or due to their enormous production. Well balanced exercise might be one of the factors that keep the integrity of blood vessel endothelium which slows down the aging process. Possible mechanism of exercise beneficial influence is shear stress by upregulation of genes coding for nitric oxide bioavailability. Thus, due to obtained results we may conclude that OS is found to be diminished in the subject groups who perform exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Oxidative Stress, Aging Process, endothelial function

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