Vojtěch Adam

Publications

3 Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez

Abstract:

Various nanomaterials can be used as a drug delivery vehicles in nanomedicine, called nanocarriers. They can either be organic or inorganic, synthetic or natural-based. Although synthetic nanocarriers are easier to produce, they can often be toxic for the organism and thus not suitable for use in treatment. From naturalbased nanocarriers, the most commonly used are protein cages or viral capsids. In this work, virus bacteriophage λ was used for delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in medium with 0.2% maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by ultracentrifugation at 130 000×g and 4°C for 3 h. The encapsulation of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25 μg·mL-1). Free drug molecules were removed by filtration. The encapsulation was verified using the absorbance for doxorubicin and atomic absorption spectrometry for platinum cytostatics. The amount of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the increasing concentration of applied drug with the determination coefficient R2=0.989 for doxorubicin; R2=0.967 for cisplatin; R2=0.989 for carboplatin and R2=0.996 for oxaliplatin. The overall encapsulation efficiency was calculated as 50% for doxorubicin; 8% for cisplatin; 6% for carboplatin and 10% for oxaliplatin.

Keywords: doxorubicin, Bacteriophage λ, platinum cytostatics, protein-based nanocarrier, viral capsid

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2 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova

Abstract:

To ensure targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier with encapsulated doxorubicin drug, we used a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (APODOX) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (APODOX-Nano) or gold(III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (APODOX-HAu). The reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties and probably accompanied with the loss of its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of APODOX-Nano were similar to the unmodified APODOX; therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, ELISA-like method was used with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, the nanocarrier was applied. APODOX without the modification showed 5× lower affinity to the antigen than APODOX-Nano modified gold and targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies).

Keywords: doxorubicin, nanocarrier, apoferritin, Antibody targeting

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1 Optimization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Determination of Quantum Dots (Qds) in Liquid Solutions

Authors: Jan Novotný, Ľudmila Ballová, David Prochazka, Karel Novotný, Radomír Malina, Petr Babula, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Klára Procházková, Jozef Kaiser

Abstract:

Here we report on the utilization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for determination of Quantum Dots (QDs) in liquid solution. The process of optimization of experimental conditions from choosing the carrier medium to application of colloid QDs is described. The main goal was to get the best possible signal to noise ratio. The results obtained from the measurements confirmed the capability of LIBS technique for qualitative and afterwards quantitative determination of QDs in liquid solution.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Quantum Dots, Nanocrystals, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, liquid analysis

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Abstracts

3 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova

Abstract:

Protein apoferritin seems to be a very promising structure for use as a nanocarrier. It is prepared from intracellular ferritin protein naturally found in most organisms. The role of ferritin proteins is to store and transport ferrous ions. Apoferritin is a hollow protein cage without ferrous ions that can be prepared from ferritin by reduction with thioglycolic acid or dithionite. The structure of apoferritin is composed of 24 protein subunits, creating a sphere with 12 nm in diameter. The inner cavity has a diameter of 8 nm. The drug encapsulation process is based on the response of apoferritin structure to the pH changes of surrounding solution. In low pH, apoferritin is disassembled into individual subunits and its structure is “opened”. It can then be mixed with any desired cytotoxic drug and after adjustment of pH back to neutral the subunits are reconnected again and the drug is encapsulated within the apoferritin particles. Excess drug molecules can be removed by dialysis. The receptors for apoferritin, SCARA5 and TfR1 can be found in the membrane of both healthy and cancer cells. To enhance the specific targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier, it is possible to modify its surface with targeting moieties, such as antibodies. To ensure sterically correct complex, we used a a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (ApoDox) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (ApoDox-Nano) or gold (III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (ApoDox-HAu). The applied amount of gold in form of gold (III) chloride hydrate was 10 times higher than in the case of gold nanoparticles. However, after removal of the excess unbound ions by electrophoretic separation, the concentration of gold on the surface of apoferritin was only 6 times higher for ApoDox-HAu in comparison with ApoDox-Nano. Moreover, the reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties (excitation maximum at 480 nm with emission maximum at 600 nm) and thus its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of ApoDox-Nano were similar to the unmodified ApoDox, therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, we used ELISA-like method with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, we applied ApoDox without targeting antibodies and ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies). The amount of unmodified ApoDox on antigen after incubation and subsequent rinsing with water was 5 times lower than in the case of ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies. The modification of non-gold ApoDox with antibodies caused no change in its targeting properties. It can therefore be concluded that the demonstrated procedure allows us to create nanocarrier with enhanced targeting properties, suitable for nanomedicine.

Keywords: doxorubicin, nanocarrier, apoferritin, targeting antibodies

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2 Phage Capsid for Efficient Delivery of Cytotoxic Drugs

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Ana Maria Jimenez Jimenez, Dita Munzova

Abstract:

The boom of nanomedicine in recent years has led to the development of numerous new nanomaterials that can be used as nanocarriers in the drug delivery. These nanocarriers can either be synthetic or natural-based. The disadvantage of many synthetic nanocarriers is their toxicity in patient’s body. Protein cages that can naturally be found in human body do not exhibit such disadvantage. However, the release of cargo from some protein cages in target cells can be problematic. As a special type of protein cages can serve the capsid of many viruses, including phage. Phages infect bacterial cells; therefore they are not harmful to human cells. The targeting of phage particles to cancer cells can be solved by producing of empty phage capsids during which the targeting moieties (e.g. peptides) can be cloned into genes of phage capsid to decorate its surface. Moreover, the produced capsids do not contain viral nucleic acid and are therefore not infectious to beneficial bacteria in the patient’s body. The protein cage composed of viral capsid is larger than other frequently used apoferritin cage but its size is still small enough to benefit from passive targeting by Enhanced Permeability and Retention effect. In this work, bacteriophage λ was used, both whole and its empty capsid for delivery of different cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, etoposide and doxorubicin). Large quantities of phage λ were obtained from phage λ-producing strain of E. coli cultivated in medium with 0.2 % maltose. After killing of E. coli with chloroform and its removal by centrifugation, the phage was concentrated by ultracentrifugation at 130 000 g and 4 °C for 3 h. The encapsulation of the drugs was performed by infusion method and four different concentrations of the drugs were encapsulated (200; 100; 50; 25 µg/ml). Free molecules of drugs were removed by dialysis. The encapsulation was verified using spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods. The amount of encapsulated drug linearly increased with the amount of applied drug (determination coefficient R2=0.8013). 76% of applied drug was encapsulated in phage λ particles (concentration of 10 µg/ml), even with the highest applied concentration of drugs, 200 µg/ml. Only 1% of encapsulated drug was detected in phage DNA. Similar results were obtained with encapsulation in phage empty capsid. Therefore, it can be concluded that the encapsulation of drugs into phage particles is efficient and mostly occurs by interaction of drugs with protein capsid.

Keywords: drug delivery, cytostatics, nanocarriers, phage capsid

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1 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Pavel Kopel, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Marketa Vaculovicova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic

Abstract:

Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: Toxicity, doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters

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