Z. U. Yümün

Publications

2 Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, E. Kam

Abstract:

In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd < LOD (limit of detection); Co 14.145 ± 0.13 μg g−1; Cr 112.868 ± 0.89 μg g−1; Cu 34.045 ± 0.53 μg g−1; Mn 481.43 ± 7.65 μg g−1; Ni 76.538 ± 3.81 μg g−1; Pb 11.059 ± 0.53 μg g−1 and Zn 140.133 ± 1.37 μg g−1, respectively. The results were compared with the average abundances of these elements in the Earth’s crust. The measured heavy metal concentrations can serve as reference values for further studies carried out on the shores of the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: Sediment, heavy metal, ICP-OES, Aegean Sea

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1 Distribution of Gamma Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of Izmir: Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, I. F. Barut, E. Kam

Abstract:

Since the development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely along coastlines. This concentration of development brings environmental pollution to the seas. This study focuses on the Gulf of Izmir, a natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea, located west of Turkey. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. This study considered natural radioactivity pollution of the marine environment. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is different) were taken from four different locations in the Gulf of izmir, Karşıyaka (12.5-13.5 m), Inciralti (6.5-7.5 m), Cesmealti (4.5-5 m) and Bayrakli (10-12 m). These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and were dried at room temperature to remove moisture. The samples were then sieved into fine powder (100 mesh), and these samples were relocated to 1000 mL polyethylene Marinelli beakers. The prepared sediments were stored for 40 days to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometry measurement of each sample was made using an HPGe (High-Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of the activity values are 8.4 ± 0.23 Bq kg-1, 19.6 ± 0.51 Bq kg-1, 8 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, 1.93 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1, and 77.4 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, respectively.

Keywords: Turkey, Pollution, Gamma, natural radionuclides, Gulf of Izmir, Eastern Aegean Sea

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Abstracts

3 [Keynote Talk]: Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments of Gulf of Izmir

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, E. Kam

Abstract:

In this study, sediment samples were collected from four sampling sites located on the shores of the Gulf of İzmir. In the samples, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined using inductively coupled, plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The average heavy metal concentrations were: Cd < LOD (limit of detection); Co 14.145 ± 0.13 μg g−1; Cr 112.868 ± 0.89 μg g−1; Cu 34.045 ± 0.53 μg g−1; Mn 481.43 ± 7.65 μg g−1; Ni 76.538 ± 3.81 μg g−1; Pb 11.059 ± 0.53 μg g−1 and Zn 140.133 ± 1.37 μg g−1, respectively. The results were compared with the average abundances of these elements in the Earth’s crust. The measured heavy metal concentrations can serve as reference values for further studies carried out on the shores of the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: Sediment, heavy metal, ICP-OES, Aegean Sea

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2 [Keynote Speech]: Determination of Naturally Occurring and Artificial Radionuclide Activity Concentrations in Marine Sediments in Western Marmara, Turkey

Authors: Erol Kam, Z. U. Yümün

Abstract:

Natural and artificial radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in environments, just as the other non-biodegradable pollutants (heavy metals, etc.) sink to the sea floor and accumulate in sediments. Especially the habitat of benthic foraminifera living on the surface of sediments or in sediments at the seafloor are affected by radioactive pollution in the marine environment. Thus, it is important for pollution analysis to determine the radionuclides. Radioactive pollution accumulates in the lowest level of the food chain and reaches humans at the highest level. The more the accumulation, the more the environment is endangered. This study used gamma spectrometry to investigate the natural and artificial radionuclide distribution of sediment samples taken from living benthic foraminifera habitats in the Western Marmara Sea. The radionuclides, K-40, Cs-137, Ra-226, Mn 54, Zr-95+ and Th-232, were identified in the sediment samples. For this purpose, 18 core samples were taken from depths of about 25-30 meters in the Marmara Sea in 2016. The locations of the core samples were specifically selected exclusively from discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and so forth to represent pollution in the study area. Gamma spectrometric analysis was used to determine the radioactive properties of sediments. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained were Cs-137=0.9-9.4 Bq/kg, Th-232=18.9-86 Bq/kg, Ra-226=10-50 Bq/kg, K-40=24.4–670 Bq/kg, Mn 54=0.71–0.9 Bq/kg and Zr-95+=0.18–0.19 Bq/kg. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The Ra-226 series, the Th-232 series, and the K-40 radionuclides accumulate naturally and are increasing every day due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the Ra-226 values obtained in the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the K-40, and Th-232 series values were found to be high in almost all the locations.

Keywords: Radionuclides, Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Cs-137, Mn 54, Zr-95+, Western Marmara Sea

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1 Distribution of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of İzmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, I. F. Barut, E. Kam

Abstract:

After development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely on the sea coasts. This concentration also brings environmental pollution in the sea. This study focuses on the Gulf of İzmir where is located in West of Turkey and it is a fascinating natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. Natural radionuclides’ pollution of the marine environment which is also known as a significant environmental anxiety. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is variant) were collected from the Gulf of İzmir’s four different locations which were Karşıyaka, İnciraltı, Çeşmealtı and Bayraklı. These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and they were dried at room temperature in a week for moisture removal. Then, they were sieved with 1 mm sieve holes, and finally these powdered samples were relocation to polyethylene Marinelli beakers of 100 ml versions. Each prepared sediment was waited to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium for 40 days. Gamma spectrometry measurements were settled using a HPG (High- Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. Semiconductor detectors are very good at separating power of the energy, they are easily able to differentiate peaks that are pretty close to each other. That is why, gamma spectroscopy’s usage is common for the determination of the activities of U - 238, Th - 232, Ra - 226, Cr - 137 and K - 40 in Bq kg⁻¹. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of activities’ values are in respectively; 2.2 ± 1.5 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.98 ± 0.02 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 8 ± 0.96 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.93 ± 0.14 Bq/ kg⁻¹, and 76.05 ± 0.93 Bq/ kg⁻¹. The outcomes of the study are able to be used as a criterion for forthcoming research and the obtained data would be pragmatic for radiological mapping of the precise areas.

Keywords: Pollution, Gamma, Gulf of İzmir (Eastern Aegean Sea-Turkey), natural radionuclides

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