Veena Sahajwalla

Publications

1 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Tafel polarisation, aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification

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Abstracts

3 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla

Abstract:

Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Tafel polarisation, aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification

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2 Sustainable Approach to Fabricate Titanium Nitride Film on Steel Substrate by Using Automotive Plastics Waste

Authors: Veena Sahajwalla, Songyan Yin, Ravindra Rajarao

Abstract:

Automotive plastics waste (widely known as auto-fluff or ASR) is a complicated mixture of various plastics incorporated with a wide range of additives and fillers like titanium dioxide, magnesium oxide, and silicon dioxide. Automotive plastics waste is difficult to recycle and its landfilling poses the significant threat to the environment. In this study, a sustainable technology to fabricate protective nanoscale TiN thin film on a steel substrate surface by using automotive waste plastics as titanium and carbon resources is suggested. When heated automotive plastics waste with steel at elevated temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere, titanium dioxide contented in ASR undergo carbothermal reduction and nitridation reactions on the surface of the steel substrate forming a nanoscale thin film of titanium nitride on the steel surface. The synthesis of TiN film on steel substrate under this technology was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, high resolution X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, a high resolution transmission electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. This sustainably fabricated TiN film was verified of dense, well crystallized and could provide good oxidation resistance to the steel substrate. This sustainable fabrication technology is maneuverable, reproducible and of great economic and environmental benefit. It not only reduces the fabrication cost of TiN coating on steel surface, but also provides a sustainable environmental solution to recycling automotive plastics waste. Moreover, high value copper droplets and char residues were also extracted from this unique fabrication process.

Keywords: Sustainable, automotive plastics waste, carbonthermal reduction and nitirdation, TiN film

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1 A Sustainable Approach for Waste Management: Automotive Waste Transformation into High Value Titanium Nitride Ceramic

Authors: Farshid Pahlevani, Veena Sahajwalla, Mohannad Mayyas

Abstract:

Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is an industrial waste, generated during the recycling process of End-of-life vehicles. The large increasing production volumes of ASR and its hazardous content have raised concerns worldwide, leading some countries to impose more restrictions on ASR waste disposal and encouraging researchers to find efficient solutions for ASR processing. Although a great deal of research work has been carried out, all proposed solutions, to our knowledge, remain commercially and technically unproven. While the volume of waste materials continues to increase, the production of materials from new sustainable sources has become of great importance. Advanced ceramic materials such as nitrides, carbides and borides are widely used in a variety of applications. Among these ceramics, a great deal of attention has been recently paid to Titanium nitride (TiN) owing to its unique characteristics. In our study, we propose a new sustainable approach for ASR management where TiN nanoparticles with ideal particle size ranging from 200 to 315 nm can be synthesized as a by-product. In this approach, TiN is thermally synthesized by nitriding pressed mixture of automotive shredder residue (ASR) incorporated with titanium oxide (TiO2). Results indicated that TiO2 influences and catalyses degradation reactions of ASR and helps to achieve fast and full decomposition. In addition, the process resulted in titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic with several unique structures (porous nanostructured, polycrystalline, micro-spherical and nano-sized structures) that were simply obtained by tuning the ratio of TiO2 to ASR, and a product with appreciable TiN content of around 85% was achieved after only one hour nitridation at 1550 °C.

Keywords: Waste treatment, Thermal Conversion, automotive shredder residue, nano-ceramics, titanium nitride

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