Sonia E. Ruiz

Publications

5 Influence of Local Soil Conditions on Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez, Miguel A. Orellana

Abstract:

Optimal load factors (dead, live and seismic) used for the design of buildings may be different, depending of the seismic ground motion characteristics to which they are subjected, which are closely related to the type of soil conditions where the structures are located. The influence of the type of soil on those load factors, is analyzed in the present study. A methodology that is useful for establishing optimal load factors that minimize the cost over the life cycle of the structure is employed; and as a restriction, it is established that the probability of structural failure must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. The life-cycle cost model used here includes different types of costs. The optimization methodology is applied to two groups of reinforced concrete buildings. One set (consisting on 4-, 7-, and 10-story buildings) is located on firm ground (with a dominant period Ts=0.5 s) and the other (consisting on 6-, 12-, and 16-story buildings) on soft soil (Ts=1.5 s) of Mexico City. Each group of buildings is designed using different combinations of load factors. The statistics of the maximums inter-story drifts (associated with the structural capacity) are found by means of incremental dynamic analyses. The buildings located on firm zone are analyzed under the action of 10 strong seismic records, and those on soft zone, under 13 strong ground motions. All the motions correspond to seismic subduction events with magnitudes M=6.9. Then, the structural damage and the expected total costs, corresponding to each group of buildings, are estimated. It is concluded that the optimal load factors combination is different for the design of buildings located on firm ground than that for buildings located on soft soil.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Buildings, life-cycle cost, optimal load factors, total costs, type of soil

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4 Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia, Ángel de J. López-Pérez

Abstract:

Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame – BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (α = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (γ = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts "frame", "damper" and "total" represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters α and γ is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters α and γ for the building with BRB under study.

Keywords: best combination of design parameters, BRB, buildings with energy dissipating devices, buckling-restrained braces, initial costs

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3 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez

Abstract:

A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: structural reliability, asymmetric yielding, tilted structures, seismic performance

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2 Modern Seismic Design Approach for Buildings with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia

Abstract:

The use of energy dissipation systems for seismic applications has increased worldwide, thus it is necessary to develop practical and modern criteria for their optimal design. Here, a direct displacement-based seismic design approach for frame buildings with hysteretic energy dissipation systems (HEDS) is applied. The building is constituted by two individual structural systems consisting of: 1) a main elastic structural frame designed for service loads; and 2) a secondary system, corresponding to the HEDS, that controls the effects of lateral loads. The procedure implies to control two design parameters: a) the stiffness ratio (α=Kframe/Ktotal system), and b) the strength ratio (γ=Vdamper/Vtotal system). The proposed damage-controlled approach contributes to the design of a more sustainable and resilient building because the structural damage is concentrated on the HEDS. The reduction of the design displacement spectrum is done by means of a damping factor (recently published) for elastic structural systems with HEDS, located in Mexico City. Two limit states are verified: serviceability and near collapse. Instead of the traditional trial-error approach, a procedure that allows the designer to establish the preliminary sizes of the structural elements of both systems is proposed. The design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel building with buckling restrained braces, located in soft soil of Mexico City. With the aim of choosing the optimal design parameters, a parametric study is developed considering different values of હ and ઻. The simplified methodology is for preliminary sizing, design, and evaluation of the effectiveness of HEDS, and it constitutes a modern and practical tool that enables the structural designer to select the best design parameters. 

Keywords: damage-controlled buildings, optimal hysteretic energy dissipation systems, direct displacementbased seismic design

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1 Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Emilio A. Berny-Brandt

Abstract:

Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subjected to several hundred million stress cycles caused by the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes highcycle fatigue, which could govern the design of the tower. Maintaining the support structure after the wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life has become a common practice; however, quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower is not usual. In this paper the effect of fatigue damage in the wind turbine structure is studied whit the use of fracture mechanics, and a method to estimate the reliability over time of the structure is proposed. A representative wind turbine located in Oaxaca, Mexico is then studied. It is found that the system reliability is significantly affected by the accumulation of fatigue damage. 

Keywords: Fatigue, Wind turbines, Monte Carlo Simulation, structural reliability, crack growth

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Abstracts

11 Vulnerability of Steel Moment-Frame Buildings with Pinned and, Alternatively, with Semi-Rigid Connections

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Daniel Llanes, Alfredo Reyes, Federico Valenzuela Beltran

Abstract:

Steel frames have been used in building construction for more than one hundred years. Beam-column may be connected to columns using either stiffened or unstiffened angles at the top and bottom beam flanges. Designers often assume that these assemblies acted as “pinned” connections for gravity loads and that the stiffened connections would act as “fixed” connections for lateral loads. Observation of damages sustained by buildings during the 1994 Northridge earthquake indicated that, contrary to the intended behavior, in many cases, brittle fractures initiated within the connections at very low levels of plastic demand, and in some cases, while the structures remained essentially elastic. Due to the damage presented in these buildings other type of alternative connections have been proposed. According to a research funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the screwed connections have better performance when they are subjected to cyclic loads, but at the same time, these connections have some degree of flexibility. Due to this situation, some researchers ventured into the study of semi-rigid connections. In the present study three steel buildings, constituted by regular frames are analyzed. Two types of connections are considered: pinned and semi-rigid connections. With the aim to estimate their structural capacity, a number of incremental dynamic analyzes are performed. 3D structural models are used for the analyses. The seismic ground motions were recorded on sites near Los Angeles, California, where the structures are supposed to be located. The vulnerability curves of the building are obtained in terms of maximum inter-story drifts. The vulnerability curves (which correspond to the models with two different types of connections) are compared, and its implications on its structural design and performance is discussed.

Keywords: Semi-Rigid Connections, steel frame Buildings, vulnerability curves, pinned connections

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10 Fragility Analysis of a Soft First-Story Building in Mexico City

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Miguel A. Orellana, Rene Jimenez

Abstract:

On 09/19/2017, a Mw = 7.1 intraslab earthquake occurred in Mexico causing the collapse of about 40 buildings. Many of these were 5- or 6-story buildings with soft first story; so, it is desirable to perform a structural fragility analysis of typical structures representative of those buildings and to propose a reliable structural solution. Here, a typical 5-story building constituted by regular R/C moment-resisting frames in the first story and confined masonry walls in the upper levels, similar to the collapsed structures on the 09/19/2017 Mexico earthquake, is analyzed. Three different structural solutions of the 5-story building are considered: S1) it is designed in accordance with the Mexico City Building Code-2004; S2) then, the column dimensions of the first story corresponding to S1 are reduced, and S3) viscous dampers are added at the first story of solution S2. A number of dynamic incremental analyses are performed for each structural solution, using a 3D structural model. The hysteretic behavior model of the masonry was calibrated with experiments performed at the Laboratory of Structures at UNAM. Ten seismic ground motions are used to excite the structures; they correspond to ground motions recorded in intermediate soil of Mexico City with a dominant period around 1s, where the structures are located. The fragility curves of the buildings are obtained for different values of the maximum inter-story drift demands. Results show that solutions S1 and S3 give place to similar probabilities of exceedance of a given value of inter-story drift for the same seismic intensity, and that solution S2 presents a higher probability of exceedance for the same seismic intensity and inter-story drift demand. Therefore, it is concluded that solution S3 (which corresponds to the building with soft first story and energy dissipation devices) can be a reliable solution from the structural point of view.

Keywords: structural capacity, demand hazard analysis, fragility curves, incremental dynamic analyzes, soft-first story

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9 Ductility Reduction Factors for Displacement Spectra Corresponding to Soft Soil Zone of the Valley of Mexico

Authors: Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Noé D. Lazos-Gallardo

Abstract:

A simplified mathematical expression to estimate ductility reduction factors of the displacement spectra corresponding to the soft soil zone of Mexico City is proposed. The aim is to allow a better characterization of the displacement spectra and provide a simple expression to be used in displacement based design (DBD). Emphasis is on the Mexico City Building Code. The study is based on the analysis of single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with elasto-plastic hysteretic behavior. Several seismic ground motions corresponding to subduction events with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6 and recorded in different stations of Mexico City are used. The proposed expression involves the ratio of elastic and inelastic pseudo-aceleration spectra, and depends on factors such the ductility demand and the vibration period of the structural system. The resulting ductility reduction factors obtained in this study are compared with others existing in the literature, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: soft soil, displacement based design, displacements spectrum, ductility reduction factors

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8 Direct-Displacement Based Design for Buildings with Non-Linear Viscous Dampers

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Kelly F. Delgado-De Agrela, Marco A. Santos-Santiago

Abstract:

An approach is proposed for the design of regular buildings equipped with non-linear viscous dissipating devices. The approach is based on a direct-displacement seismic design method which satisfies seismic performance objectives. The global system involved is formed by structural regular moment frames capable of supporting gravity and lateral loads with elastic response behavior plus a set of non-linear viscous dissipating devices which reduce the structural seismic response. The dampers are characterized by two design parameters: (1) a positive real exponent α which represents the non-linearity of the damper, and (2) the damping coefficient C of the device, whose constitutive force-velocity law is given by F=Cvᵃ, where v is the velocity between the ends of the damper. The procedure is carried out using a substitute structure. Two limits states are verified: serviceability and near collapse. The reduction of the spectral ordinates by the additional damping assumed in the design process and introduced to the structure by the viscous non-linear dampers is performed according to a damping reduction factor. For the design of the non-linear damper system, the real velocity is considered instead of the pseudo-velocity. The proposed design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel moment frame building equipped with non-linear viscous dampers, located in intermediate soil zone of Mexico City, with a dominant period Tₛ = 1s. In order to validate the approach, nonlinear static analyses and nonlinear time history analyses are performed.

Keywords: based design, direct-displacement based design, non-linear viscous dampers, performance design

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7 Influence of Local Soil Conditions on Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez, Miguel A. Orellana

Abstract:

Optimal load factors (dead, live and seismic) used for the design of buildings may be different, depending of the seismic ground motion characteristics to which they are subjected, which are closely related to the type of soil conditions where the structures are located. The influence of the type of soil on those load factors, is analyzed in the present study. A methodology that is useful for establishing optimal load factors that minimize the cost over the life cycle of the structure is employed; and as a restriction, it is established that the probability of structural failure must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. The life-cycle cost model used here includes different types of costs. The optimization methodology is applied to two groups of reinforced concrete buildings. One set (consisting on 4-, 7-, and 10-story buildings) is located on firm ground (with a dominant period Ts=0.5 s) and the other (consisting on 6-, 12-, and 16-story buildings) on soft soil (Ts=1.5 s) of Mexico City. Each group of buildings is designed using different combinations of load factors. The statistics of the maximums inter-story drifts (associated with the structural capacity) are found by means of incremental dynamic analyses. The buildings located on firm zone are analyzed under the action of 10 strong seismic records, and those on soft zone, under 13 strong ground motions. All the motions correspond to seismic subduction events with magnitudes M=6.9. Then, the structural damage and the expected total costs, corresponding to each group of buildings, are estimated. It is concluded that the optimal load factors combination is different for the design of buildings located on firm ground than that for buildings located on soft soil.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Buildings, life-cycle cost, optimal load factors, total costs, type of soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
6 Best Combination of Design Parameters for Buildings with Buckling-Restrained Braces

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia, Ángel de J. López-Pérez

Abstract:

Buildings vulnerability due to seismic activity has been highly studied since the middle of last century. As a solution to the structural and non-structural damage caused by intense ground motions, several seismic energy dissipating devices, such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB), have been proposed. BRB have shown to be effective in concentrating a large portion of the energy transmitted to the structure by the seismic ground motion. A design approach for buildings with BRB elements, which is based on a seismic Displacement-Based formulation, has recently been proposed by the coauthors in this paper. It is a practical and easy design method which simplifies the work of structural engineers. The method is used here for the design of the structure-BRB damper system. The objective of the present study is to extend and apply a methodology to find the best combination of design parameters on multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structural frame – BRB systems, taking into account simultaneously: 1) initial costs and 2) an adequate engineering demand parameter. The design parameters considered here are: the stiffness ratio (α = Kframe/Ktotal), and the strength ratio (γ = Vdamper/Vtotal); where K represents structural stiffness and V structural strength; and the subscripts "frame", "damper" and "total" represent: the structure without dampers, the BRB dampers and the total frame-damper system, respectively. The selection of the best combination of design parameters α and γ is based on an initial costs analysis and on the structural dynamic response of the structural frame-damper system. The methodology is applied to a 12-story 5-bay steel building with BRB, which is located on the intermediate soil of Mexico City. It is found the best combination of design parameters α and γ for the building with BRB under study.

Keywords: best combination of design parameters, BRB, buildings with energy dissipating devices, buckling-restrained braces, initial costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
5 Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez, Eden Bojórquez, David de León Escobedo

Abstract:

A life-cycle optimization procedure to establish the best load factors combinations for seismic design of buildings, is proposed. The expected cost of damage from future earthquakes within the life of the structure is estimated, and realistic cost functions are assumed. The functions include: Repair cost, cost of contents damage, cost associated with loss of life, cost of injuries and economic loss. The loads considered are dead, live and earthquake load. The study is performed for reinforced concrete buildings located in Mexico City. The buildings are modeled as multiple-degree-of-freedom frame structures. The parameter selected to measure the structural damage is the maximum inter-story drift. The structural models are subjected to 31 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City. In order to obtain the annual structural failure rates, a numerical integration method is applied.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Life-Cycle Analysis, load factors

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4 Influence of Wind Induced Fatigue Damage in the Reliability of Wind Turbines

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Emilio A. Berny-Brandt

Abstract:

Steel tubular towers serving as support structures for large wind turbines are subject to several hundred million stress cycles arising from the turbulent nature of the wind. This causes high-cycle fatigue which can govern tower design. The practice of maintaining the support structure after wind turbines reach its typical 20-year design life have become common, but without quantifying the changes in the reliability on the tower. There are several studies on this topic, but most of them are based on the S-N curve approach using the Miner’s rule damage summation method, the de-facto standard in the wind industry. However, the qualitative nature of Miner’s method makes desirable the use of fracture mechanics to measure the effects of fatigue in the capacity curve of the structure, which is important in order to evaluate the integrity and reliability of these towers. Temporal and spatially varying wind speed time histories are simulated based on power spectral density and coherence functions. Simulations are then applied to a SAP2000 finite element model and step-by-step analysis is used to obtain the stress time histories for a range of representative wind speeds expected during service conditions of the wind turbine. Rainflow method is then used to obtain cycle and stress range information of each of these time histories and a statistical analysis is performed to obtain the distribution parameters of each variable. Monte Carlo simulation is used here to evaluate crack growth over time in the tower base using the Paris-Erdogan equation. A nonlinear static pushover analysis to assess the capacity curve of the structure after a number of years is performed. The capacity curves are then used to evaluate the changes in reliability of a steel tower located in Oaxaca, Mexico, where wind energy facilities are expected to grow in the near future. Results show that fatigue on the tower base can have significant effects on the structural capacity of the wind turbine, especially after the 20-year design life when the crack growth curve starts behaving exponentially.

Keywords: Fatigue, Wind turbines, Monte Carlo Simulation, structural reliability, crack growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
3 Modern Seismic Design Approach for Buildings with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Vanessa A. Segovia

Abstract:

The use of energy dissipation systems for seismic applications has increased worldwide, thus it is necessary to develop practical and modern criteria for their optimal design. Here, a direct displacement-based seismic design approach for frame buildings with hysteretic energy dissipation systems (HEDS) is applied. The building is constituted by two individual structural systems consisting of: 1) A main elastic structural frame designed for service loads and 2) A secondary system, corresponding to the HEDS, that controls the effects of lateral loads. The procedure implies to control two design parameters: A) The stiffness ratio (α=K_frame/K_(total system)), and B) The strength ratio (γ= V_damper / V_(total system)). The proposed damage-controlled approach contributes to the design of a more sustainable and resilient building because the structural damage is concentrated on the HEDS. The reduction of the design displacement spectrum is done by means of a damping factor (recently published) for elastic structural systems with HEDS, located in Mexico City. Two limit states are verified: Serviceability and near collapse. Instead of the traditional trial-error approach, a procedure that allows the designer to establish the preliminary sizes of the structural elements of both systems is proposed. The design methodology is applied to an 8-story steel building with buckling restrained braces, located in soft soil of Mexico City. With the aim of choosing the optimal design parameters, a parametric study is developed considering different values of α and γ. The simplified methodology is for preliminary sizing, design, and evaluation of the effectiveness of HEDS, and it constitutes a modern and practical tool that enables the structural designer to select the best design parameters.

Keywords: damage-controlled buildings, direct displacement-based seismic design, optimal hysteretic energy dissipation systems, hysteretic dampers

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
2 Reliability-Based Ductility Seismic Spectra of Structures with Tilting

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Federico Valenzuela-Beltran, Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez

Abstract:

A reliability-based methodology which uses structural demand hazard curves to consider the increment of the ductility demands of structures with tilting is proposed. The approach considers the effect of two orthogonal components of the ground motions as well as the influence of soil-structure interaction. The approach involves the calculation of ductility demand hazard curves for symmetric systems and, alternatively, for systems with different degrees of asymmetry. To get this objective, demand hazard curves corresponding to different global ductility demands of the systems are calculated. Next, Uniform Exceedance Rate Spectra (UERS) are developed for a specific mean annual rate of exceedance value. Ratios between UERS corresponding to asymmetric and to symmetric systems located in soft soil of the valley of Mexico are obtained. Results indicate that the ductility demands corresponding to tilted structures may be several times higher than those corresponding to symmetric structures, depending on several factors such as tilting angle and vibration period of structure and soil.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, structural reliability, asymmetric yielding, tilted structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
1 Seismic Behavior of Three-Dimensional Steel Buildings with Post-Tensioned Connections

Authors: Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Sonia E. Ruiz, Manuel E. Soto-López, Israel Gaxiola-Avendaño, Eden Bojórquez

Abstract:

The seismic responses of steel buildings with semi-rigid post-tensioned connections (PC) are estimated and compared with those of steel buildings with typical rigid (welded) connections (RC). The comparison is made in terms of global and local response parameters. The results indicate that the seismic responses in terms of interstory shears, roof displacements, axial load and bending moments are smaller for the buildings with PC connection. The difference is larger for global than for local parameters, which in turn varies from one column location to another. The reason for this improved behavior is that the buildings with PC dissipate more hysteretic energy than those with RC. In addition, unlike the case of buildings with WC, for the PC structures the hysteretic energy is mostly dissipated at the connections, which implies that structural damage in beams and columns is not significant. According to this results, steel buildings with PC are a viable option in highseismicity areas because of their smaller response and self-centering connection capacity as well as the fact that brittle failure is avoided.

Keywords: Steel Buildings, nonlinear time-history analysis, post-tensioned connections, inter-story drift

Procedia PDF Downloads 364