A. A. Hassan

Publications

1 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate, characterize and identify Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from chicken ceca and feces of thirty three clinically healthy chickens from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity of the isolated LAB (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified by biochemical carbohydrate fermentation patterns using an API 50 CHL kit and API ZYM kits and by sequenced 16S rDNA. An isolate belonging to E. faecium species exhibited inhibitory effect against S. enteritidis. This isolate producing a clear zone as large as 10.30 mm or greater and was able to grow in the coculture medium and at the same time, inhibited the growth S. enteritidis. In addition, E. faecium exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions at pH 2.5 for 8 h and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 h and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. Enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, probiotic, acid tolerance, Enterococcus faecium

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Abstracts

3 Impact of Mathematical Modeling on Mathematics Achievement, Attitude, and Interest of Pre-Service Teachers in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Hassan, Mohammed Abubakar Ndanusa, R. W. Gimba, A. M. Alfa, M. T. Abari

Abstract:

This study investigated the Impact of Mathematical Modeling on Mathematics Achievement, Attitude and Interest of Pre-Service Teachers in Niger States, Nigeria. It was an attempt to ease students’ difficulties in comprehending mathematics. The study used randomized pretest, posttest control group design. Two Colleges of Education were purposively selected from Niger State with a sample size of eighty-four 84 students. Three research instruments used are Mathematical Modeling Achievement Test (MMAT), Attitudes Towards Mathematical Modeling Questionnaire (ATMMQ) and Mathematical Modeling Students Interest Questionnaire (MMSIQ). Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) formula was used for MMAT and Alpha Cronbach was used for ATMMQ and MMSIQ to determine their reliability coefficient and the values the following values were obtained respectively 0.76, 0.75 and 0.73. Independent t-test statistics was used to test hypothesis One while Mann Whitney U-test was used to test hypothesis Two and Three. Findings revealed that students taught Mathematics using Mathematical Modeling performed better than their counterparts taught using lecture method. However, there was a significant difference in the attitude and interest of pre-service mathematics teachers after being exposed to mathematical modeling. The strategy, therefore, was recommended to be used by Mathematics teachers with a view to improving students’ attitude and interest towards Mathematics. Also, modeling should be taught at NCE level in order to prepare pre-service teachers towards real task in the field of Mathematics.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, interest, pre-service teachers, attitude, achievement

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2 Probiotic Potential and Antimicrobial Activity of Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Chicken Caecal and Fecal Samples

Authors: Salma H. Abu Hafsa, A. Mendonca, B. Brehm-Stecher, A. A. Hassan, S. A. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Enterococci are important inhabitants of the animal intestine and are widely used in probiotic products. A probiotic strain is expected to possess several desirable properties in order to exert beneficial effects. Therefore, the objective of this study was to isolate and characterize strains of Enterococcus sp. from chicken cecal and fecal samples to determine potential probiotic properties. Enterococci were isolated from thirty one chicken cecal and fecal samples collected from a local farm. In vitro studies were performed to assess antibacterial activity (using agar well diffusion and cell free supernatant broth technique against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis), susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxycillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid), survival in acidic conditions, resistance to bile salts, and their survival during simulated gastric juice conditions at pH 2.5. Isolates were identified using biochemical and molecular assays (API 50 CHL, and API ZYM kits followed by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis). Two strains were identified, of which, Enteroccocus faecium was capable of inhibiting the growth of S. enteritidis and was susceptible to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition, the isolated strain exhibited significant resistance under highly acidic conditions (pH=2.5) for 8 hours and survived well in bile salt at 0.2% for 24 hours and showing ability to survive in the presence of simulated gastric juice at pH 2.5. Based on these results, the E. faecium isolate fulfills some of the criteria to be considered as a probiotic strain and therefore, could be used as a feed additive with good potential for controlling S. enteritidis in chickens. However, in vivo studies are needed to determine the safety of the strain.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, probiotic, Enterococcus faecium, acid tolerance

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1 Technical and Environmental Improvement of LNG Carrier's Propulsion Machinery by Using Jatropha Biao Diesel Fuel

Authors: A. A. Hassan, M. Abbas, E. H. Hegazy, M. A. Mosaad, A. A. Tawfik

Abstract:

The rapid depletion of petroleum reserves and rising oil prices has led to the search for alternative fuels. A promising alternative fuel Jatropha Methyl Easter, JME, has drawn the attention of researchers in recent times as a high potential substrate for production of biodiesel fuel. In this paper, the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine when fuelled with JME, diesel oil and natural gas are evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results showed that the thermal and volumetric efficiency of diesel engine is higher than Jatropha biodiesel engine. The specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, HC, CO2 and NO were comparatively higher in Jatropha biodiesel, while CO emission is appreciable decreased. CFD investigation was carried out in the present work to compare diesel fuel oil and JME. The CFD simulation offers a powerful and convenient way to help understanding physical and chemical processes involved internal combustion engines for diesel oil fuel and JME fuel. The CFD concluded that the deviation between diesel fuel pressure and JME not exceeds 3 bar and the trend for compression pressure almost the same, also the temperature deviation between diesel fuel and JME not exceeds 40 k and the trend for temperature almost the same. Finally the maximum heat release rate of JME is lower than that of diesel fuel. The experimental and CFD investigation indicated that the Jatropha biodiesel can be used instead of diesel fuel oil with safe engine operation.

Keywords: Natural Gas, CFD, Emissions, dual fuel diesel engine, Jatropha Methyl Easter, volumetric efficiency

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