Marjoné van der Bank

Publications

2 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: Climate Change, Disaster, Mitigation, Adaptation, local governments

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1 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the intergenerational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: Human Rights, Environment, Protection, International

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Abstracts

3 A Legal Opinion on Mitigation and Adaptation on Air Pollution Strategies for Local Governments in South Africa

Authors: C. M. van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the foundation and evolution of environmental related problems in local governments with specific reference on air pollution in South Africa. Local government has a direct mandate in terms of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (hereafter, the Constitution). This mandate to protect, fulfil, respect and promote the Bill of Rights by local governments in respect of the powers and functions creates confusion around the role of where a local government fits in, in addressing the problem of climate change in South Africa. A reflection of the evolving legislations, developments, and processes regarding climate change that shaped local government dispensation in South Africa is addressed by the notion of developmental local governments. This paper seeks to examine the advances for mitigation and adaptation regulation of air pollution and application in South Africa. This study involves a qualitative approach that will involve South African national legislation as well as an interpretation of international strategies. A literature review study was conducted to undertake the various aspects of law in order to support the argument undertaken of mitigation and adaptation strategies. The paper presents a detailed discussion of the current legislation and the position as it currently stands, as well as the relevant protections as outlined in the National Environmental Management Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act. It then proceeds to outline the responsibilities of local governments in South Africa to mitigate and adapt to air pollution strategies.

Keywords: Climate Change, Disaster, Adaptation, local governments and mitigation

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2 The Constitutional Rights of a Child to a Clean and Healthy Environment: A Case Study in the Vaal Triangle Region

Authors: Christiena Van Der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank, Ronelle Prinsloo

Abstract:

The constitutional right to a healthy environment and the constitutional duty imposed on the state actively to protect the environment fulfill the specific duties to prevent pollution and ecological degradation and to promote conservation. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the relationship between child rights and the environment. The focus is to analyse government’s responses as mandated with section 24 of the Bill of Rights for ensuring the right to a clean and healthy environment. The principle of sustainability of the environment encompasses the notion of equity and the harm to the environment affects the present as well as future generations. Section 24 obliges the state to ensure that the legacy of future generations is protected, an obligation that has been said to be part of the common law. The environment is an elusive and wide concept that can mean different things to different people depending on the context in which it is used for example clean drinking water or safe food. An extensive interpretation of the term environment would include almost everything that may positively or negatively influence the quality of human life. The analysis will include assessing policy measures, legislation, budgetary measures and other measures taken by the government in order to progressively meet its constitutional obligation. The opportunity of the child to grow up in a healthy and safe environment is extremely unjustly distributed. Without a realignment of political, legal and economic conditions this situation will not fundamentally change. South Africa as a developing country that needs to meet the demand of social transformation and economic growth whilst at the same time expediting its ability to compete in global markets, the country will inevitably embark on developmental programmes as a measure for sustainable development. The courts would have to inquire into the reasonableness of those measures. Environmental threats to children’s rights must be identified, taking into account children’s specific needs and vulnerabilities, their dependence and marginalisation. Obligations of states and violations of rights must be made more visible to the general public.

Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Healthy, violation, children rights

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1 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: Marjoné van der Bank, CM van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: Human Rights, Environment, Protection, International Law

Procedia PDF Downloads 323