Nicolas Brosse

Abstracts

2 Technico-Economical Study of a Rapeseed Based Biorefinery Using High Voltage Electrical Discharges and Ultrasounds as Pretreatment Technologies

Authors: Eugene Vorobiev, Nicolas Brosse, Marwa Brahim, Nadia Boussetta, Nabil Grimi

Abstract:

Rapeseed plant is an established product in France which is mainly dedicated to oil production. However, the economic potential of residues from this industry (rapeseed hulls, rapeseed cake, rapeseed straw etc.), has not been fully exploited. Currently, only low-grade applications are found in the market. As a consequence, it was deemed of interest to develop a technological platform aiming to convert rapeseed residues into value- added products. Specifically, a focus is given on the conversion of rapeseed straw into valuable molecules (e.g. lignin, glucose). Existing pretreatment technologies have many drawbacks mainly the production of sugar degradation products that limit the effectiveness of saccharification and fermentation steps in the overall scheme of the lignocellulosic biorefinery. In addition, the viability of fractionation strategies is a challenge in an environmental context increasingly standardized. Hence, the need to find cleaner alternatives with comparable efficiency by implementing physical phenomena that could destabilize the structural integrity of biomass without necessarily using chemical solvents. To meet environmental standards increasingly stringent, the present work aims to study the new pretreatment strategies involving lower consumption of chemicals with an attenuation of the severity of the treatment. These strategies consist on coupling physical treatments either high voltage electrical discharges or ultrasounds to conventional chemical pretreatments (soda and organosolv). Ultrasounds treatment is based on the cavitation phenomenon, and high voltage electrical discharges cause an electrical breakdown accompanied by many secondary phenomena. The choice of process was based on a technological feasibility study taking into account the economic profitability of the whole chain after products valorization. Priority was given to sugars valorization into bioethanol and lignin sale.

Keywords: ultrasounds, high voltage electrical discharges, organosolv, pretreatment strategies, rapeseed straw, soda

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1 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour

Abstract:

The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: Rheology, pyrolysis, Mechanism, Valorization, Spectroscopic Methods, Solidification, bio-chemicals, softening, cross linking

Procedia PDF Downloads 277