Deep Shikha

Abstracts

2 Characterisation of Pasteurella multocida from Asymptomatic Animals

Authors: Deep Shikha, Rajeev Manhas, M. A. Bhat, A. K. Taku, Dalip Singh, Gulzar Bader

Abstract:

The study was aimed to understand the distribution of various serogroups of Pasteurella multocida in bovines, small ruminants, pig, rabbit, and poultry from Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir and to characterize the isolates with respect to LPS synthesizing genes, dermonecrotic toxin gene (toxA) gene and antibiotic resistance. For isolation, the nasopharyngeal swab procedure appeared to be better than nasal swab procedure, particularly in ovine and swine. Out of 200 samples from different animals, isolation of P. multocida could be achieved from pig and sheep (5 each) and from poultry and buffalo (2 each) samples only, which accounted for 14 isolates. Upon molecular serogrouping, 3 isolates from sheep and 2 isolates from poultry were found as serogroup A, 2 isolates from buffalo were confirmed as serogroup B and 5 isolates from pig were found to belong to serogroup D. However, 2 isolates from sheep could not be typed, hence, untypable. All the 14 isolates were subjected to mPCR genotyping. A total of 10 isolates, 5 each from pig and sheep, generated an amplicon specific to genotype L6 and L6 indicates Heddleston serovars 10, 11, 12 and 15. Similarly, 2 isolates from bovines generated an amplicon of genotype L2 which indicates Heddleston serovar 2/5. However, 2 isolates from poultry generated specific amplicon with L1 signifying Heddleston serovar 1, but these isolates also produced multiple bands with primer L5. Only, one isolate of capsular type A from sheep possessed the structural gene, toxA for dermonecrotoxin. There was variability in the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in sheep isolates, but overall the rate of tetracycline resistance was relatively high (64.28%) in our strains while all the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin. Except for the swine isolates and one toxigenic sheep isolate, the P. multocida isolates from this study were sensitive to quinolones. Although the level of resistance to commercial antibiotics was generally low, the use of tetracycline and erythromycin was not recommended.

Keywords: antibiogram, Genotyping, Pasteurella multocida, serogrouping, toxA

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1 Effect of Fiber Inclusion on the Geotechnical Parameters of Clayey Soil Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: Arun Prasad, P. B. Ramudu, Deep Shikha, Deep Jyoti Singh

Abstract:

A number of studies have been conducted recently to investigate the influence of randomly oriented fibers on some engineering properties of cohesive soils.Freezing and thawing of soil affects the strength, durability and permeability of soil adversely. Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effect of inclusion of randomly distributed polypropylene fibers on the strength, hydraulic conductivity and durability of local soil (CL) subjected to freeze–thaw cycles. For evaluating the change in strength of soil, a series of unconfined compression tests as well as tri-axial tests were carried out on reinforced and unreinforced soil samples. All the samples were subjected to seven cycles of freezing and thawing. Freezing was carried out at a temperature of - 15 to -18 °C; and thawing was carried out by keeping the samples at room temperature. The reinforcement of soil samples was done by mixing with polypropylene fibers, 12 mm long and with an aspect ratio of 240. The content of fibers was varied from 0.25 to 1% by dry weight of soil. The maximum strength of soil was found in samples having a fiber content of 0.75% for all the samples that were prepared at optimum moisture content (OMC), and if the OMC was increased (+2% OMC) or decreased (-2% OMC), the maximum strength observed at 0.5% fiber inclusion. The effect of fiber inclusion and freeze–thaw on the hydraulic conductivity was studied increased from around 25 times to 300 times that of the unreinforced soil, without subjected to any freeze-thaw cycles. For studying the increased durability of soil, mass loss after each freeze-thaw cycle was calculated and it was found that samples reinforced with polypropylene fibers show 50-60% less loss in weight than that of the unreinforced soil.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforcement, Hydraulic Conductivity, freezingand thawing, unconfined compressive strength

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