Mark Willcox


2 Mode of Action of Surface Bound Antimicrobial Peptides Melimine and Mel4 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Muhammad Yasir, Debarun Dutta, Mark Willcox


Biomaterial-associated infections are a multi-billion dollar burden globally. Antimicrobial peptide-based coatings may be able to prevent such infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action surface bound peptides (AMPs) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6294. Melimine and Mel4 were covalently attached to glass coverslips using azido-benzoic acid. Attachment was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. P. aeruginosa was allowed to attach to AMP-coated glass for up to 6 hours. The effect of the surface-bound AMPs on bacterial cell membranes was evaluated using the dyes DiSC3-(5), Sytox green, SYTO 9 and propidium iodide with fluorescence microscopy. Release of cytoplasmic materials ATP and DNA/RNA were determined in the surrounding fluid. The amount of cell death was estimated by agar plate counts. The AMPs were successfully covalently bound to the glass as demonstrated by increases in %nitrogen of 3.6% (melimine) and 2.3% (Mel4) compared to controls. Immobilized peptides disrupted the cytoplasmic membrane potential of P. aeruginosa within 10 min. This was followed by the release of ATP after 2 h. Membrane permeabilization started at 3 h of contact with glass coated AMPs. There was a significant number of bacteria (59% for melimine; 36% for Mel-4) with damaged membranes after 4 h of contact. At the 6 h time point, release of DNA occurred with melimine releasing 2 times the amount of DNA/RNA than Mel4 surfaces (p < 0.05). Surface bound AMPs were able to disrupt cell membranes with subsequent release of cytoplasmic materials, and ultimately resulting in bacterial death.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Mode of Action, P. aeruginosa, immobilized antimicrobial peptides

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1 Immobilizing Quorum Sensing Inhibitors on Biomaterial Surfaces

Authors: Aditi Taunk, George Iskander, Kitty Ka Kit Ho, Mark Willcox, Naresh Kumar


Bacterial infections on biomaterial implants and medical devices accounts for 60-70% of all hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Treatment or removal of these infected devices results in high patient mortality and morbidity along with increased hospital expenses. In addition, with no effective strategies currently available and rapid development of antibacterial resistance has made device-related infections extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, in this project we have developed biomaterial surfaces using antibacterial compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by interfering with the bacterial communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). This study focuses on covalent attachment of potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting compounds, halogenated furanones (FUs) and dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs), onto glass surfaces. The FUs were attached by photoactivating the azide groups on the surface, and the acid functionalized DHPs were immobilized on amine surface via EDC/NHS coupling. The modified surfaces were tested in vitro against pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Successful attachment of compounds on the substrates was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antibacterial efficacy was assessed, and significant reduction in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation was observed on the FU and DHP coated surfaces. The activity of the coating was dependent upon the type of substituent present on the phenyl group of the DHP compound. For example, the ortho-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-2) exhibited 79% reduction in bacterial adhesion against S. aureus and para-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-3) exhibited 70% reduction against P. aeruginosa. The results were found to be comparable to DHP coated surfaces prepared in earlier study via Michael addition reaction. FUs and DHPs were able to retain their in vitro antibacterial efficacy after covalent attachment via azide chemistry. This approach is a promising strategy to develop efficient antibacterial biomaterials to reduce device related infections.

Keywords: Surface functionalization, quorum sensing, antibacterial biomaterials, biomedical device-related infections

Procedia PDF Downloads 130