Memet Vezir Kahraman


8 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Seyfullah Madakbaş, Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane


In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: nanocomposite, polyimide, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

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7 Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Based Antimicrobial Food Packaging Materials

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Ferhat Şen


This study aimed to develop polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials that do not contain any antimicrobial agents. Cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, carbon and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. Its nitrogen content was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Polyelectrolyte structured antimicrobial food packaging materials were prepared using hydroxyethyl cellulose, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose, and sodium alginate. Antimicrobial activity of materials was defined by inhibition zone method (disc diffusion method). Thermal stability of samples was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that produced food packaging materials have good thermal and antimicrobial properties, and they can be used as food packaging material in many industries.

Keywords: antimicrobial food packaging, polyelectrolyte, sodium alginate, cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose

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6 Efficiency of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Removal of Chlorpyrifos from Water Samples

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane, Oya A. Urucu, Aslı B. Çiğil, Ece K. Yetimoğlu


Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide which can be found in environmental water samples. The efficiency and reuse of a molecularly imprinted polymer (chlorpyrifos - MIP) were investigated for the selective removal of chlorpyrifos residues. MIP was prepared with UV curing thiol-ene polymerization technology by using multifunctional thiol and ene monomers. The thiol-ene curing reaction is a radical induced process, however unlike other photoinitiated polymerization processes, this polymerization process is a free-radical reaction that proceeds by a step-growth mechanism, involving two main steps; a free-radical addition followed by a chain transfer reaction. It assures a very rapidly formation of a uniform crosslinked network with low shrinkage, reduced oxygen inhibition during curing and excellent adhesion. In this study, thiol-ene based UV-curable polymeric materials were prepared by mixing pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate), glyoxal bis diallyl acetal, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and photoinitiator. Chlorpyrifos was added at a definite ratio to the prepared formulation. Chemical structure and thermal properties were characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The pesticide analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of some analytical parameters such as pH, sample volume, amounts of analyte concentration were studied for the quantitative recoveries of the analyte. The proposed MIP method was applied to the determination of chlorpyrifos in river and tap water samples. The use of the MIP provided a selective and easy solution for removing chlorpyrifos from the water.

Keywords: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers, uv-curable polymer, selective removal, thilol-ene

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5 Surface Modified Nano-Diamond/Polyimide Hybrid Composites

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l, Hati̇ce Bi̇rtane


Polyimide (PI) is one of the most important super-engineering materials because of its mechanical properties and its thermal stability. Electronic industry is the typical extensive applications of polyimides including interlayer insulation films, buffer coating, films, alpha-ray shielding films, and alignment films for liquid crystal displays. The mechanical and thermal properties of polymers are generally improved by the addition of inorganic additives. The challenges in this area of high-performance organic/inorganic hybrid materials are to obtain significant improvements in the interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix and the reinforcing material since the organic matrix is relatively incompatible with the inorganic phase. In this study, modified nanodiamond was prepared from the reaction of nanodiamond and (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane. Poly(amic acid) was prepared from the reaction of 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-Oxydianiline (ODA). Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were prepared by blending of poly(amic acid) and organically modified nanodiamond. The morphology of the Polyimide/ modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by FTIR. FTIR results showed that the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids were successfully prepared. A thermal property of the Polyimide/modified nanodiamond hybrids was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: Nanodiamond, Polymer, Hybrid materials, polyimide

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4 Synthesis and Properties of Photocured Surface Modified Polyaniline Hybrid Composites

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Asli Beyler Çi̇ği̇l


Organic–inorganic hybrids have become an effective source of advanced materials because they combine the advantages of both the organic moiety such as flexibility, low dielectric constant, and processability, and inorganic moiety as rigidity, strength, durability, and thermal stability. By incorporating cross-linkable side chains, the hybrid materials can be made photosensitive and UV curable, which offers many advantages including low processing temperature, low equipment cost and compatibility. In this study, uv-curable organic-inorganic hybrid material, which was contained surface modified polyaniline particles (PANI), was prepared. PANI surface photografted with hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to produce hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl functionalized PANI/HEMA was acrylated using isocyanato ethyl methacrylate (IEM) in order to improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction in composites. UV-curable formulation was prepared by mixing the surface modified PANI, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), hydrolized 3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hyd. MEMO) and photoinitiator. Chemical structure of nano-hybrid material was characterized by FTIR. FTIR spectra showed that the photografting of PANI was prepared successfully. Thermal properties of the nano-hybrid material were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nano-hybrid material was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: polyaniline, sol-gel, photograft, uv-curable polymer

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3 Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Barium Titanate Composites

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Seyfullah Madakbaş, Ferhat Şen


The aim of this study was to improve thermal stability, mechanical and surface properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with the addition of BaTiO3. The TPU/ BaTiO3 composites having various ratios of TPU and BaTiO3 were prepared. The chemical structure of the prepared composites was investigated by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra of TPU/ barium titanate composites show that they successfully were prepared. Thermal stability of the samples was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared composites showed high thermal stability, and the char yield increased as barium titanate content increased. The glass transition temperatures of the composites rise with the addition of barium titanate. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. The mechanical properties of the TPU were increased with the contribution of the contribution of the barium titanate it increased. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The contact angles have the tendency to increase the hydrophobic behavior on the surface, when barium titanate was added into TPU. Moreover, the surface morphology of the samples was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM-EDS mapping images showed that barium titanate particles were dispersed homogeneously. Finally, the obtained results prove that the prepared composites have good thermal, mechanical and surface properties and that they can be used in many applications such as the electronic devices, materials engineering and other emergent.

Keywords: Composites, Scanning Electron Microscopy, barium titanate, thermoplastic polyurethane

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2 Soybean Oil Based Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Memet Vezir Kahraman, Emre Basturk


In many developing countries, with the rapid economic improvements, energy shortage and environmental issues have become a serious problem. Therefore, it has become a very critical issue to improve energy usage efficiency and also protect the environment. Thermal energy storage system is an essential approach to match the thermal energy claim and supply. Thermal energy can be stored by heating, cooling or melting a material with the energy and then enhancing accessible when the procedure is reversed. The overall thermal energy storage techniques are sorted as; latent heat or sensible heat thermal energy storage technology segments. Among these methods, latent heat storage is the most effective method of collecting thermal energy. Latent heat thermal energy storage depend on the storage material, emitting or discharging heat as it undergoes a solid to liquid, solid to solid or liquid to gas phase change or vice versa. Phase change materials (PCMs) are promising materials for latent heat storage applications due to their capacities to accumulate high latent heat storage per unit volume by phase change at an almost constant temperature. Phase change materials (PCMs) are being utilized to absorb, collect and discharge thermal energy during the cycle of melting and freezing, converting from one phase to another. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can generally be arranged into three classes: organic materials, salt hydrates and eutectics. Many kinds of organic and inorganic PCMs and their blends have been examined as latent heat storage materials. Organic PCMs are rather expensive and they have average latent heat storage per unit volume and also have low density. Most organic PCMs are combustible in nature and also have a wide range of melting point. Organic PCMs can be categorized into two major categories: non-paraffinic and paraffin materials. Paraffin materials have been extensively used, due to their high latent heat and right thermal characteristics, such as minimal super cooling, varying phase change temperature, low vapor pressure while melting, good chemical and thermal stability, and self-nucleating behavior. Ultraviolet (UV)-curing technology has been generally used because it has many advantages, such as low energy consumption , high speed, high chemical stability, room-temperature operation, low processing costs and environmental friendly. For many years, PCMs have been used for heating and cooling industrial applications including textiles, refrigerators, construction, transportation packaging for temperature-sensitive products, a few solar energy based systems, biomedical and electronic materials. In this study, UV-curable, fatty alcohol containing soybean oil based phase change materials (PCMs) were obtained and characterized. The phase transition behaviors and thermal stability of the prepared UV-cured biobased PCMs were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The heating process phase change enthalpy is measured between 30 and 68 J/g, and the freezing process phase change enthalpy is found between 18 and 70 J/g. The decomposition of UVcured PCMs started at 260 ºC and reached a maximum of 430 ºC.

Keywords: Thermal Energy Storage, phase change material, fatty alcohol, UV curing

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1 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Nanofibers, keratin, UV-reactive electrospinning

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