Nasir Ahmed


2 Collaborative Managerial Practices of Heads of Educational Institutions: Principals and Students Perspective

Authors: Nasir Ahmed


The study was designed to explore the managerial practices of secondary school principals in collaboration with different school stakeholder’s i.e. Teachers, students and school councils. The population of the study comprised 41 principals of government secondary schools, 249 Secondary school teachers (SSTs), 3360 students of 10th class and 300 members of the school councils of government secondary schools (both boys and girls) in Wazirabad, Pakistan. 50 percentage principals, 40 percentage SSTs, 3 percentage students and 15% members of the school councils were taken as a sample of the study. Data was collected through different four-questionnaire design on a five point rating scale. The questionnaires for teachers, students, and school councils were developed to see their involvement in school management. The questionnaire for the secondary school principals was designed to find out to see their perceptions about the involvement of these stakeholders in school’s management. The results of the students indicated that, the remaining stakeholders were not cooperating with the school management. It was recommended that all the stakeholders be provided equal opportunities to take an active part in the school management. This may be based on a formal mechanism for the collaborative efforts of all the stakeholders.

Keywords: Management, Collaboration, school stakeholders, school councils, managerial practices

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1 Mechanism for Network Security via Routing Protocols Estimated with Network Simulator 2 (NS-2)

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Sufyan, Nasir Ahmed


The MANETs have lessened transportation and decentralized network. There are numerous basis of routing protocols. We derived the MANETs protocol into three major categories like Reactive, Proactive and hybrid. In these protocols, we discussed only some protocols like Distance Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The AODV and DSR are both reactive type of protocols. On the other hand, DSDV is proactive type protocol here. We compare these routing protocols for network security estimated by network simulator (NS-2). In this dissertation some parameters discussed such as simulation time, packet size, number of node, packet delivery fraction, push time and speed etc. We will construct all these parameters on routing protocols under suitable conditions for network security measures.

Keywords: DSDV, AODV, PDF, DSR NS-2, push time

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