E. V. Fakhrutdinova

Abstracts

2 Education as a Factor Which Reduces Poverty

Authors: E. V. Fakhrutdinova, Y. S. Kolesnikova, E. A. Karasik, V. M. Zagidullina

Abstract:

Poverty as the social and economic phenomenon exists in any society and represents a many-sided problem. In this sense it is universal and for many centuries serves as a research objects for scientists. Special attention to a problem of poverty in Russia is caused, first of all, by the critical growth of inequality and by scales of expansion of poverty, considerable decrease in the level and quality of life of the population, decrease in availability of education during the period of reforming. The expansion of poverty on the working members of society, youth, which has to provide reproduction of the population is alarming. As poverty is the reason of weakening of national security of the country, degradation of the population, decline in the quality of the human capital, complication of a demographic situation, strengthening of social contradictions in society, so far as the reduction of poverty, so, the increase in production. Poverty: the characteristic of an economic situation of the individual or social group at which they can't satisfy certain minimum requirements necessary for life, preservations of working capacity and reproduction. Poverty became one of the critical factors expelling people from the system of the institutional interactions reducing social space in which their relations were building breaking their social identity. Complication of the problem of poverty in modern society happened due to penetration of the related relations into many spheres of life. It is known that negative consequences of poverty display not only at the personal level of the poor person, but also at the level of interpersonal social interactions, decline in the quality and level of development of the human capital, and also at social and economic system in general. We conducted a research on the influence of education on the change of poverty level of the population. We consider education as a resource for an increase of the income and social mobility. Dependence of the income of the population on the level of education, availability of education (level of education and quality of education) on the level of income of families is found. Differentiation of quality and number of educational services for children depending on the level of the income of families is revealed. Influence of a factor of poverty on the availability of education is also studied. We consider expenses on education as the limiter of access to education. We consider education as a factor of fixation and aggravation of a property inequality. In the solution of problems of poverty the defining condition is the state regulation of social and economic development by means of creation of the effective institutional environment. The state has to develop measures for an increase of availability of various services to all categories of citizens, in particular services of health care and education, especially for poor citizens enters. The special attention regarding an increase of availability of education services has to be paid to creation of system of social elevators.

Keywords: Education, Poverty, Quality of Life, Human Capital

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1 Motivation of Doctors and its Impact on the Quality of Working Life

Authors: P. B. Chursin, E. V. Fakhrutdinova, K. R. Maksimova

Abstract:

At the present stage of the society progress the health care is an integral part of both the economic system and social, while in the second case the medicine is a major component of a number of basic and necessary social programs. Since the foundation of the health system are highly qualified health professionals, it is logical proposition that increase of doctor`s professionalism improves the effectiveness of the system as a whole. Professionalism of the doctor is a collection of many components, essential role played by such personal-psychological factors as honesty, willingness and desire to help people, and motivation. A number of researchers consider motivation as an expression of basic human needs that have passed through the “filter” which is a worldview and values learned in the process of socialization by the individual, to commit certain actions designed to achieve the expected result. From this point of view a number of researchers propose the following classification of highly skilled employee’s needs: 1. the need for confirmation the competence (setting goals that meet the professionalism and receipt of positive emotions in their decision), 2. The need for independence (the ability to make their own choices in contentious situations arising in the process carry out specialist functions), 3. The need for ownership (in the case of health care workers, to the profession and accordingly, high in the eyes of the public status of the doctor). Nevertheless, it is important to understand that in a market economy a significant motivator for physicians (both legal and natural persons) is to maximize its own profits. In the case of health professionals duality motivational structure creates an additional contrast, as in the public mind the image of the ideal physician; usually a altruistically minded person thinking is not primarily about their own benefit, and to assist others. In this context, the question of the real motivation of health workers deserves special attention. The survey conducted by the American researcher Harrison Terni for the magazine "Med Tech" in 2010 revealed the opinion of more than 200 medical students starting courses, and the primary motivation in a profession choice is "desire to help people", only 15% said that they want become a doctor, "to earn a lot". From the point of view of most of the classical theories of motivation this trend can be called positive, as intangible incentives are more effective. However, it is likely that over time the opinion of the respondents may change in the direction of mercantile motives. Thus, it is logical to assume that well-designed system of motivation of doctor`s labor should be based on motivational foundations laid during training in higher education.

Keywords: Motivation, Health System, quality of working life, personal-psychological factors, motivational structure

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