Mariusz Ziółko

Abstracts

2 Affects Associations Analysis in Emergency Situations

Authors: Magdalena Igras, Joanna Grzybowska, Mariusz Ziółko

Abstract:

Association rule learning is an approach for discovering interesting relationships in large databases. The analysis of relations, invisible at first glance, is a source of new knowledge which can be subsequently used for prediction. We used this data mining technique (which is an automatic and objective method) to learn about interesting affects associations in a corpus of emergency phone calls. We also made an attempt to match revealed rules with their possible situational context. The corpus was collected and subjectively annotated by two researchers. Each of 3306 recordings contains information on emotion: (1) type (sadness, weariness, anxiety, surprise, stress, anger, frustration, calm, relief, compassion, contentment, amusement, joy) (2) valence (negative, neutral, or positive) (3) intensity (low, typical, alternating, high). Also, additional information, that is a clue to speaker’s emotional state, was annotated: speech rate (slow, normal, fast), characteristic vocabulary (filled pauses, repeated words) and conversation style (normal, chaotic). Exponentially many rules can be extracted from a set of items (an item is a previously annotated single information). To generate the rules in the form of an implication X → Y (where X and Y are frequent k-itemsets) the Apriori algorithm was used - it avoids performing needless computations. Then, two basic measures (Support and Confidence) and several additional symmetric and asymmetric objective measures (e.g. Laplace, Conviction, Interest Factor, Cosine, correlation coefficient) were calculated for each rule. Each applied interestingness measure revealed different rules - we selected some top rules for each measure. Owing to the specificity of the corpus (emergency situations), most of the strong rules contain only negative emotions. There are though strong rules including neutral or even positive emotions. Three examples of the strongest rules are: {sadness} → {anxiety}; {sadness, weariness, stress, frustration} → {anger}; {compassion} → {sadness}. Association rule learning revealed the strongest configurations of affects (as well as configurations of affects with affect-related information) in our emergency phone calls corpus. The acquired knowledge can be used for prediction to fulfill the emotional profile of a new caller. Furthermore, a rule-related possible context analysis may be a clue to the situation a caller is in.

Keywords: Data Mining, Rules, emergency phone calls, emotional profiles

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1 Classification of Emotions in Emergency Call Center Conversations

Authors: Magdalena Igras, Joanna Grzybowska, Mariusz Ziółko

Abstract:

The study of emotions expressed in emergency phone call is presented, covering both statistical analysis of emotions configurations and an attempt to automatically classify emotions. An emergency call is a situation usually accompanied by intense, authentic emotions. They influence (and may inhibit) the communication between caller and responder. In order to support responders in their responsible and psychically exhaustive work, we studied when and in which combinations emotions appeared in calls. A corpus of 45 hours of conversations (about 3300 calls) from emergency call center was collected. Each recording was manually tagged with labels of emotions valence (positive, negative or neutral), type (sadness, tiredness, anxiety, surprise, stress, anger, fury, calm, relief, compassion, satisfaction, amusement, joy) and arousal (weak, typical, varying, high) on the basis of perceptual judgment of two annotators. As we concluded, basic emotions tend to appear in specific configurations depending on the overall situational context and attitude of speaker. After performing statistical analysis we distinguished four main types of emotional behavior of callers: worry/helplessness (sadness, tiredness, compassion), alarm (anxiety, intense stress), mistake or neutral request for information (calm, surprise, sometimes with amusement) and pretension/insisting (anger, fury). The frequency of profiles was respectively: 51%, 21%, 18% and 8% of recordings. A model of presenting the complex emotional profiles on the two-dimensional (tension-insecurity) plane was introduced. In the stage of acoustic analysis, a set of prosodic parameters, as well as Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) were used. Using these parameters, complex emotional states were modeled with machine learning techniques including Gaussian mixture models, decision trees and discriminant analysis. Results of classification with several methods will be presented and compared with the state of the art results obtained for classification of basic emotions. Future work will include optimization of the algorithm to perform in real time in order to track changes of emotions during a conversation.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Emotion recognition, Acoustic Analysis, complex emotions

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