Javed Ali

Abstracts

3 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota, Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, AIDS, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, Elvitegravir

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2 Formulation and Optimization of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Rutin for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability Using QbD Approach

Authors: Javed Ali, Shrestha Sharma, Jasjeet K. Sahni, Sanjula Baboota

Abstract:

Introduction: Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule belonging to bioflavonoid category. Due to its free radical scavenging properties, it has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases including inflammation, cancer, diabetes, allergy, cardiovascular disorders and various types of microbial infections. Despite its beneficial effects, it suffers from the problem of low aqueous solubility which is responsible for low oral bioavailability. The aim of our study was to optimize and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of rutin using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with a desirability function. Further various antioxidant, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed for the optimized rutin SNEDDS formulation. Methodologies: Selection of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant was done on the basis of solubility/miscibility studies. Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS 15 and Transcutol P were selected as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Optimization of SNEDDS formulations was done by a three-factor, three-level (33)BBD. The independent factors were Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS15, and Transcutol P. The dependent variables were globule size, self emulsification time (SEF), % transmittance and cumulative percentage drug released. Various response surface graphs and contour plots were constructed to understand the effect of different factor, their levels and combinations on the responses. The optimized Rutin SNEDDS formulation was characterized for various parameters such as globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, refractive index , % Transmittance and in vitro drug release. Ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacokinetic studies were performed for optimized formulation. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and reducing power assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Permeation of rutin across small intestine was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Major findings:The optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol+ Vitamin E - Solutol HS15 -Transcutol HP at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and a comparison of the predicted values and experimental values were found to be in close agreement. The globule size and PDI of optimized SNEDDS formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124±0.01 respectively. Significant (p˂0.05) increase in percentage drug release was achieved in the case of optimized SNEDDS formulation (98.8 %) as compared to rutin suspension. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability compared with that of the suspension. Antioxidant assay results indicated better efficacy of the developed formulation than the pure drug and it was found to be comparable with ascorbic acid. The results of anti-inflammatory studies showed 72.93 % inhibition for the SNEDDS formulation which was significantly higher than the drug suspension 46.56%. The results of CLSM indicated that the absorption of SNEDDS formulation was considerably higher than that from rutin suspension. Conclusion: Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing oral bioavailability and efficacy of Rutin.

Keywords: Pharmacodynamics, rutin, oral bioavilability, pharamacokinetics

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1 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: Surfactants, Nanoemulsion, cell viability, MTT, ultrasonication, microemulsion

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