F. Acheuk

Abstracts

4 Toxic Activity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and taking a conscience prompted researchers and institutions to lean towards the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on part of the cuticle the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria. Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of the bio-control agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment by direct spraying of the cuticle, 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticle which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: effect, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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3 Toxicity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and. For this, a new control method appeared it comes to the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on part of the cuticule the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae var acridium biocontrol agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment in the digestive tract and it administrant 20μl of entomopathogenic solution orally at a dose DL50 = 3.25 x107 sp./ ml (median lethal dose estimated at earlier), 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. After dissection cuticles are recovered and then subjected to histological sections. The histological technique followed is that of Martoja Martoja-Pierson (1967). Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticule which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: Toxicity, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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2 Eco-Ethology of Bees Visitors on Vicia faba L. var. Major (Fabaceae) in Algeria

Authors: S. Doumandji, L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, K. Louadi, S. Iserbyt

Abstract:

Due to their ecological key position and diversity, plant-bee relationships constitute excellent models to understand the processes of food specialisation. The purpose of this study is to define and identify the most important species of bees foraging broadbean flowers, we estimated morphological, phonological and behavioural features. We discuss the results by considering the food specialisation level of the visitor. In the studied populations (Algiers, Algeria), visiting bees belong to four different genus: Apis, Andrena, Eucera and Xylocopa. Eucera is foraging broad beans flowers during months of April, May. The genus Andrena and Xylocopa were found on weeds after the flowering period of beans. The two species have not a preferred type of vegetation compared to Eucera. The main pollinators were generalist bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Xylocopa pubescens Spinola (Apidae), and specialist bees such Eucera numida Lep. (Apidae). The results show that no one of the studied species, neither the specialist, nor the generalist ones, share adaptative morphological or behavioural features that may improve foraging on Vicia faba. However, there is a narrow synchronisation between the daily and yearly phenologies of Eucera numida and those of V. faba. This could be an adaptation of the specialist bee to its host plant. Thus, the food specialisation of Eucera numida, as for most specialist bees, would be more linked to its adapted phenology than to an adapted morphology.

Keywords: Pollinators, Algeria, Vicia faba, bees

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1 Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) in Algeria

Authors: L. Bendifallah, F. Acheuk, M. Djouabi, M. Oukili, R. Ghezraoui, W. Lakhdari, R. Allouane

Abstract:

Nigella sativa L. (Renunculaceae) native to the Mediterranean region and Western Asia, Black cumin is grown to India, through Sudan and Ethiopia. It is widely cultivated in Egypt, the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Sudan, Afghanistan and Europe. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Despite its plethora of uses for treating various diseases, it has garnered very little scientific interest so far, particularly in Algeria. For this study, the seeds of Algerian Nigella sativa L cultivated in the area of Magra (M’sila) in northern Algeria, were collected in summer. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Nigella sativa as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against four pathogenic bacterial strains and two pathogenic yeast strains. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in flavonoïds, and in alkaloids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against all the species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Escerichia coli (14 mm, 12.33 mm) and an antifungic activity against Aspergillus niger (11.66 mm, 9 mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Nigella sativa seeds which can use to treatment the microbial infection.

Keywords: Phytochemistry, Antimicrobial activity, Algeria, Nigella sativa

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