Jinkoo Kim

Abstracts

13 Shaking Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Spring Viscous Damper Cable System

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Asad Naeem

Abstract:

This research proposes a self-centering passive damping system consisting of a spring viscous damper linked with a preloaded tendon. The seismic performance of the spring viscous damper is evaluated by pseudo-dynamic tests, and the results are used for the formulation of an analytical model of the damper in the structural analysis program. The shaking table tests of a two-story steel frame installed with the proposed damping system are carried out using five different earthquake records. The results from the shaking table tests are verified by numerical simulation of the retrofitted structure. The results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed damping system with self-centering capability is effective in reducing earthquake-induced displacement and member forces.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, Earthquake Resistant Structures, spring viscous damper, shaking table test

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12 Hybrid Seismic Energy Dissipation Devices Made of Viscoelastic Pad and Steel Plate

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

This study develops a hybrid seismic energy dissipation device composed of a viscoelastic damper and a steel slit damper connected in parallel. A cyclic loading test is conducted on a test specimen to validate the seismic performance of the hybrid damper. Then a moment-framed model structure is designed without seismic load so that it is retrofitted with the hybrid dampers. The model structure is transformed into an equivalent simplified system to find out optimum story-wise damper distribution pattern using genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the hybrid damper is investigated by fragility analysis and the life cycle cost evaluation of the structure with and without the dampers. The analysis results show that the model structure has reduced probability of reaching damage states, especially the complete damage state, after seismic retrofit. The expected damage cost and consequently the life cycle cost of the retrofitted structure turn out to be significantly small compared with those of the original structure. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the International Cooperative R & D program (N043100016).

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, friction dampers, slit dampers, hybrid dampers

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11 Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Mohamed Noureldin

Abstract:

In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Seismic retrofit, Optimum Design, slit dampers

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10 Seismic Performance of a Framed Structure Retrofitted with Damped Cable Systems

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim, Asad Naeem

Abstract:

In this work, the effectiveness of damped cable systems (DCS) on the mitigation of earthquake-induced response of a framed structure is investigated. The seismic performance of DCS is investigated using fragility analysis and life cycle cost evaluation of an existing building retrofitted with DCS, and the results are compared with those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. The comparison of the analysis results reveals that, due to the self-centering capability of the DCS, residual displacement becomes nearly zero in the structure retrofitted with the DCS. According to the fragility analysis, the structure retrofitted with the DCS has smaller probability of reaching a limit states compared to the structure with viscous dampers. It is also observed that both the initial and life cycle costs of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by a grant (17CTAP-C132889-01) from Technology Advancement Research Program (TARP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, fragility analysis, damped cable system, self centering

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9 Cost Effectiveness of Slit-Viscoelastic Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of Structures

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In order to reduce or eliminate seismic damage in structures, many researchers have investigated various energy dissipation devices. In this study, the seismic capacity and cost of a slit-viscoelastic seismic retrofit system composed of a steel slit plate and viscoelastic dampers connected in parallel are evaluated. The combination of the two different damping mechanisms is expected to produce enhanced seismic performance of the building. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in the nonlinear dynamic analysis software Perform 3D, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the displacement of the structure equipped with the hybrid dampers is smaller than that of the structure with slit dampers due to the enhanced self-centering capability of the system. It is also observed that the initial cost of hybrid system required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscoelastic dampers. Acknowledgement: This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the International Cooperative R&D program(N043100016_Development of low-cost high-performance seismic energy dissipation devices using viscoelastic material).

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, Viscous Dampers, self-centering, damped cable systems

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8 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin

Abstract:

In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, fragility curve, damped cable system, self-centering

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7 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Structures with Hybrid Dampers Based on FEMA P-58 Methodology

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim, Hyunkoo Kang

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time. This research was supported by a grant (13AUDP-B066083-01) from Architecture & Urban Development Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, friction dampers, FEMA P-58

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6 Behavior of Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Impact Load

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang

Abstract:

This study investigates the performance of a 2D and 3D steel moment frame subjected to vehicle collision at a first story column using LS-DYNA. The finite element models of vehicles provided by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC) are used for numerical analysis. Nonlinear dynamic time history analysis of the 2D and 3D model structures are carried out based on the arbitrary column removal scenario, and the vertical displacement of the damaged structures are compared with that obtained from collision analysis. The analysis results show that the model structure remains stable when the speed of the vehicle is 40km/h. However, at the speed of 80 and 120km/h both the 2D and 3D structures collapse by progressive collapse. The vertical displacement of the damaged joint obtained from collision analysis is significantly larger than the displacement computed based on the arbitrary column removal scenario.

Keywords: progressive collapse, FEM, LS-DYNA, vehicle collision

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5 Story-Wise Distribution of Slit Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of RC Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Minjung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang

Abstract:

In this study, a seismic retrofit scheme for a reinforced concrete shear wall structure using steel slit dampers was presented. The stiffness and the strength of the slit damper used in the retrofit were verified by cyclic loading test. A genetic algorithm was applied to find out the optimum location of the slit dampers. The effects of the slit dampers on the seismic retrofit of the model were compared with those of jacketing shear walls. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned slit dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Based on the analysis results, the simple procedure for determining required damping ratio using capacity spectrum method along with the damper distribution pattern proportional to the inter-story drifts was validated. The analysis results showed that the seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was more economical than the jacketing of the shear walls and that the capacity spectrum method combined with the simple damper distribution pattern led to satisfactory damper distribution pattern compatible with the solution obtained from the genetic algorithm.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Seismic retrofit, capacity spectrum method, slit dampers, jacketing

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4 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang, Hyungjun Shin

Abstract:

In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time.

Keywords: Seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, friction dampers, slit dampers, FEMA P-58, PACT

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3 Optimal Design of Friction Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of a Moment Frame

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang

Abstract:

This study investigated the determination of the optimal location and friction force of friction dampers to effectively reduce the seismic response of a reinforced concrete structure designed without considering seismic load. To this end, the genetic algorithm process was applied and the results were compared with those obtained by simplified methods such as distribution of dampers based on the story shear or the inter-story drift ratio. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned friction dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that compared with the system without friction dampers, the maximum roof displacement and the inter-story drift ratio were reduced by about 30% and 40%, respectively. After installation of the dampers about 70% of the earthquake input energy was dissipated by the dampers and the energy dissipated in the structural elements was reduced by about 50%. In comparison with the simplified methods of installation, the genetic algorithm provided more efficient solutions for seismic retrofit of the model structure.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Optimal Design, RC buildings, friction dampers

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2 Sensitivity Analysis of Pile-Founded Fixed Steel Jacket Platforms

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Mohamed Noureldin

Abstract:

The sensitivity of the seismic response parameters to the uncertain modeling variables of pile-founded fixed steel jacket platforms are investigated using tornado diagram, first-order second-moment, and static pushover analysis techniques. The effects of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty on seismic response parameters have been investigated for an existing offshore platform. The sources of uncertainty considered in the present study are categorized into three different categories: the uncertainties associated with the soil-pile modeling parameters in clay soil, the platform jacket structure modeling parameters, and the uncertainties related to ground motion excitations. It has been found that the variability in parameters such as yield strength or pile bearing capacity has almost no effect on the seismic response parameters considered, whereas the global structural response is highly affected by the ground motion uncertainty. Also, some uncertainty in soil-pile property such as soil-pile friction capacity has a significant impact on the response parameters and should be carefully modeled. Based on the results, it is highlighted that which uncertain parameters should be considered carefully and which can be assumed with reasonable engineering judgment during the early structural design stage of fixed steel jacket platforms.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, fixed jacket offshore platform, pile-soil structure interaction

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1 Performance of Staggered Wall Buildings Subjected to Low to Medium Earthquake Loads

Authors: Younghoo Choi, Yong Jun, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study seismic performance of typical reinforced concrete staggered wall system structures was evaluated through nonlinear static and incremental dynamic analyses. To this end, and 15-story SWS structures were designed and were analyzed to obtain their nonlinear force-displacement relationships. The analysis results showed that the 5-story SWS structures failed due to yielding of columns and walls located in the lower stories, whereas in the 15-story structures plastic hinges were more widely distributed throughout the stories.

Keywords: Seismic Performance, Reinforced Concrete, staggered wall systems

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