Xingping Wang

Abstracts

3 The Soviet Union-Style of Urban Planning in China: Historical Review and Enlightenment from the Output Mode of Contemporary Cooperative Parks

Authors: Xingping Wang, Yifeng Shi

Abstract:

The Soviet Union-style of urban planning has produced a broad and profound influence on China’s urban planning system. The study on extendibility and development experience of Soviet planning in China helps to change the current embarrassing situation 'one-hand planning practice, second-hand planning theory', and also beneficial to facilitate the establishment of China's domestic urban planning theory from the planning source, especially the overseas cooperation parks rich in 'Chinese characteristics'. In practice, as the world’s major infrastructure country, China is exporting to the world especially countries along 'the Belt and Road' a development model featuring cooperation parks as Chinese characteristics. This is of great significance to evaluate and summarize the experiences of Soviet Union-style of planning for China's development objectively and rationally, from removing ideological factors and extracting positive factors to carry them forward in overseas cooperation parks. This article briefly reviews the Soviet influence on urban planning after the founding of China and divided the influences stages into 'guidance, internalization and absorption, selective learning, decline' four periods. The impact includes production-oriented planning and planning concepts continue to be implemented, the establishment of the regional planning, master planning, detailed planning of the basic framework of urban planning, and homogenized cellular structure of the space, as well as planning techniques, professional training, planning techniques and so on. China and even most socialist countries now still carry such planning genes. At present, in the process of implementing 'the Belt and Road' strategy, the planning and construction of China’s overseas cooperation parks generally encounter many problems as lack of strategic planning and systematic planning, lack of top-level design, uncoordinated planning and layout in parks, and redundant construction in some areas. After sublating the planning genes of the Soviet Union-style of urban planning for the development of the socialist countries, especially the industrial planning system, this paper puts forward some views as follows to realize the overseas output and development of China's planning model and technology. Firstly the future development of overseas cooperation park should be from a rational planning point of view. Secondly the government should not only rigidly and equitably allocate the resources of the parks but also closely integrate the national economic plans or economic development strategies. Lastly management department should frame the threshold of development rationally, give full play to the pragmatic planning style in accordance with the local land system and planning system. It has an important guiding and reference role for the development of China's overseas cooperation park under the 'go global' strategy, after objectively evaluating the impact of the Soviet Union-style urban planning and absorbing the beneficial components on China. However, we should also recognize that the cooperation parks and the urban industrial system behind it are only part of urban development. More attention should be payed on the design of the local and the general rules of urban development to take the lead effect of cooperation parks suitable. Foundation item: Under the auspices of the Specific Plan for Strategic International Cooperation in Scientific and Technological Innovation, the National Key Research and Development Plan 'Research Cooperation and Exemplary Application in Planning of Development of Overseas Industrial Parks' (No 2016YFE0201000).

Keywords: China cooperative parks, history of urban planning, output mode, The Soviet Union

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2 Research on the Planning Spatial Mode of China's Overseas Industrial Park

Authors: Xingping Wang, Sidong Zhao

Abstract:

Recently, the government of China has provided strong support the developments of overseas industrial parks. The global distribution of China overseas industrial parks has gradually moved from the 'sparks of fire' to the 'prairie fires.' The support and distribution have promoted developing overseas industrial parks to a strategy of constructing a China's new open economic system and a typical representative of the 'Chinese wisdom' and the 'China's plans' that China has contributed to the globalization of the new era under the initiative of the Belt and Road. As the industrial parks are the basis of 'work/employment', a basic function of a city (Athens Constitution), planning for developments of industrial parks has become a long-term focus of urban planning. Based on the research of the planning and the analysis of the present developments of some typical China overseas industrial parks, we found some interesting rules: First, large numbers of the China overseas industrial parks are located in less developed countries. These industrial parks have become significant drives of the developments of the host cities and even the regions in those countries, especially in investment, employment and paid tax fee for the local, etc. so, the planning and development of overseas industrial parks have received extensive attention. Second, there are some problems in the small part of the overseas Park, such as the planning of the park not following the planning of the host city and lack of implementation of the park planning, etc. These problems have led to the difficulties of the implementation of the planning and the sustainable developments of the parks. Third, a unique pattern of space development has been formed. in the dimension of the patterns of regional spatial distribution, there are five characteristics - along with the coast, along the river, along with the main traffic lines and hubs, along with the central urban area and along the connections of regions economic. In the dimension of the spatial relationships between the industrial park and the city, there is a growing and evolving trend as 'separation – integration - union'. In the dimension of spatial mode of the industrial parks, there are different patterns of development, such as a specialized industrial park, complex industrial park, characteristic town and new urban area of industry, etc. From the perspective of the trends of the developments and spatial modes, in the future, the planning of China overseas industrial parks should emphasize the idea of 'building a city based on the industrial park'. In other words, it's making the developments of China overseas industrial parks move from 'driven by policy' to 'driven by the functions of the city', accelerating forming the system of China overseas industrial parks and integrating the industrial parks and the cities.

Keywords: Planning, China, overseas industrial park, spatial mode

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1 The Relationship between Metropolitan Space and Spatial Distribution of Main Innovative Actors: The Case of Yangtze Delta Metropolitan in China

Authors: Jun Zhou, Xingping Wang, Paul Milbourne

Abstract:

Evidences in the world shows that the industry and population have being greatly concentrated in metropolitan regions which is getting to be the most important area for the economic power and people living standard in the future. In the meanwhile, the relevant innovation theories of Agglomeration, New Industrial Geography and Modern Evolutionary innovation prove that the reason why the agglomeration in world-class city and metropolitan areas and also verify innovation is the key point for the development of metropolis. The primary purpose of this paper is to analyze the geographical spatial characteristics of innovative subjects which contain firm, university, research institution, government and intermediary organ in metropolis throughout the amount data analysis in Yangtze River Metropolis in China. The results show three main conclusions. The first is different subjects in different regions have different spatial characteristics. The second one is different structure and pattern between the subjects also can produce different innovative effect. The last but not the least is agglomeration of innovative subjects’ is not only influenced by the innovative network or local policies but also affected by the localized industry characteristics and culture which are getting to be the most important crucial factors.

Keywords: Spatial, China, metropolitan development, innovative subject, Yangtze River Metropolis

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