Z. Karahaliloğlu


3 Magnetic SF (Silk Fibroin) E-Gel Scaffolds Containing bFGF-Conjugated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Z. Karahaliloğlu, M. Demirbilek, E. Yalçın, E.B. Denkbaş


Critical-sized bone defects caused by trauma, bone diseases, prosthetic implant revision or tumor excision cannot be repaired by physiological regenerative processes. Current orthopedic applications for critical-sized bone defects are to use autologous bone grafts, bone allografts, or synthetic graft materials. However, these strategies are unable to solve completely the problem, and motivate the development of novel effective biological scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine applications. In particular, scaffolds combined with a variety of bio-agents as fundamental tools emerge to provide the regeneration of damaged bone tissues due to their ability to promote cell growth and function. In this study, a magnetic silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel scaffold was prepared by electrogelation process of the concentrated Bombxy mori silk fibroin (8 %wt) aqueous solution. For enhancement of osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) growth and adhesion, basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were conjugated physically to the HSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and magnetic SF e-gel scaffolds were prepared by incorporation of Fe3O4, HSA (human serum albumin)=Fe3O4 and HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF nanoparticles. HSA=Fe3O4, HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded and bare SF e-gels scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM.) For cell studies, human osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) was used and an MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of magnetic silk fibroin e-gel scaffolds and cell density on these surfaces. For the evaluation osteogenic activation, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), the amount of mineralized calcium, total protein and collagen were studied. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and bFGF was conjugated to HSA=Fe3O4 nanoparticles with %97.5 of binding yield which has a particle size of 71.52±2.3 nm. Electron microscopy images of the prepared HSA and bFGF incorporated SF e-gel scaffolds showed a 3D porous morphology. In terms of water uptake results, bFGF conjugated HSA=Fe3O4 nanoparticles has the best water absorbability behavior among all groups. In the in-vitro cell culture studies realized using SaOS-2 cell line, the coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles surface with a protein enhance the cell viability and HSA coating and bFGF conjugation, the both have an inductive effect in the cell proliferation. One of the markers of bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, according to the ALP activity and total protein results, HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded SF e-gels had significantly enhanced ALP activity. Osteoblast cultured HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded SF e-gels deposited more calcium compared with SF e-gel. The proposed magnetic scaffolds seem to be promising for bone tissue regeneration and used in future work for various applications.

Keywords: Silk Fibroin, iron oxide nanoparticles, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), e-gel

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2 Concanavaline a Conjugated Bacterial Polyester Based PHBHHx Nanoparticles Loaded with Curcumin for the Ovarian Cancer Therapy

Authors: B. Hazer, Z. Karahaliloğlu, E. B. Denkbaş, E. Kilicay


In this study, we have prepared concanavaline A (ConA) functionalized curcumin (CUR) loaded PHBHHx (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)) nanoparticles as a novel and efficient drug delivery system. CUR is a promising anticancer agent for various cancer types. The aim of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of curcumin loaded PHBHHx nanoparticles (CUR-NPs) and concanavaline A conjugated curcumin loaded NPs (ConA-CUR NPs) for ovarian cancer treatment. ConA was covalently connected to the carboxylic group of nanoparticles by EDC/NHS activation method. In the ligand attachment experiment, the binding capacity of ConA on the surface of NPs was found about 90%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the prepared nanoparticles were smooth and spherical in shape. The size and zeta potential of prepared NPs were about 228±5 nm and −21.3 mV respectively. ConA-CUR NPs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the existence of CUR and ConA in the nanoparticles. The entrapment and loading efficiencies of different polymer/drug weight ratios, 1/0.125 PHBHHx/CUR= 1.25CUR-NPs; 1/0.25 PHBHHx/CUR= 2.5CUR-NPs; 1/0.5 PHBHHx/CUR= 5CUR-NPs, ConA-1.25CUR NPs, ConA-2.5CUR NPs and ConA-5CUR NPs were found to be ≈ 68%-16.8%; 55%-17.7 %; 45%-33.6%; 70%-15.7%; 60%-17%; 51%-30.2% respectively. In vitro drug release showed that the sustained release of curcumin was observed from CUR-NPs and ConA-CUR NPs over a period of 19 days. After binding of ConA, the release rate was slightly increased due to the migration of curcumin to the surface of the nanoparticles and the matrix integrities was decreased because of the conjugation reaction. This functionalized nanoparticles demonstrated high drug loading capacity, sustained drug release profile, and high and long term anticancer efficacy in human cancer cell lines. Anticancer activity of ConA-CUR NPs was proved by MTT assay and reconfirmed by apoptosis and necrosis assay. The anticancer activity of ConA-CUR NPs was measured in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) and the results revealed that the ConA-CUR NPs had better tumor cells decline activity than free curcumin. The nacked nanoparticles have no cytotoxicity against human ovarian carcinoma cells. Thus the developed functionalized nanoformulation could be a promising candidate in cancer therapy.

Keywords: Curcumin, curcumin-PHBHHx nanoparticles, concanavalin A, concanavalin A-curcumin PHBHHx nanoparticles, PHBHHx nanoparticles, ovarian cancer cell

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1 Melt–Electrospun Polyprophylene Fabrics Functionalized with TiO2 Nanoparticles for Effective Photocatalytic Decolorization

Authors: G. Seide, T. Gries, Z. Karahaliloğlu, C. Hacker, M. Demirbilek, E. B. Denkbaş


Currently, textile industry has played an important role in world’s economy, especially in developing countries. Dyes and pigments used in textile industry are significant pollutants. Most of theirs are azo dyes that have chromophore (-N=N-) in their structure. There are many methods for removal of the dyes from wastewater such as chemical coagulation, flocculation, precipitation and ozonation. But these methods have numerous disadvantages and alternative methods are needed for wastewater decolorization. Titanium-mediated photodegradation has been used generally due to non-toxic, insoluble, inexpensive, and highly reactive properties of titanium dioxide semiconductor (TiO2). Melt electrospinning is an attractive manufacturing process for thin fiber production through electrospinning from PP (Polyprophylene). PP fibers have been widely used in the filtration due to theirs unique properties such as hydrophobicity, good mechanical strength, chemical resistance and low-cost production. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of titanium nanoparticle localization and amine modification on the dye degradation. The applicability of the prepared chemical activated composite and pristine fabrics for a novel treatment of dyeing wastewater were evaluated.In this study, a photocatalyzer material was prepared from nTi (titanium dioxide nanoparticles) and PP by a melt-electrospinning technique. The electrospinning parameters of pristine PP and PP/nTi nanocomposite fabrics were optimized. Before functionalization with nTi, the surface of fabrics was activated by a technique using glutaraldehyde (GA) and polyethyleneimine to promote the dye degredation. Pristine PP and PP/nTi nanocomposite melt-electrospun fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS). Methyl orange (MO) was used as a model compound for the decolorization experiments. Photocatalytic performance of nTi-loaded pristine and nanocomposite melt-electrospun filters was investigated by varying initial dye concentration 10, 20, 40 mg/L). nTi-PP composite fabrics were successfully processed into a uniform, fibrous network of beadless fibers with diameters of 800±0.4 nm. The process parameters were determined as a voltage of 30 kV, a working distance of 5 cm, a temperature of the thermocouple and hotcoil of 260–300 ºC and a flow rate of 0.07 mL/h. SEM results indicated that TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited uniformly on the nanofibers and XPS results confirmed the presence of titanium nanoparticles and generation of amine groups after modification. According to photocatalytic decolarization test results, nTi-loaded GA-treated pristine or nTi-PP nanocomposite fabric filtern have superior properties, especially over 90% decolorization efficiency at GA-treated pristine and nTi-PP composite PP fabrics. In this work, as a photocatalyzer for wastewater treatment, surface functionalized with nTi melt-electrospun fabrics from PP were prepared. Results showed melt-electrospun nTi-loaded GA-tretaed composite or pristine PP fabrics have a great potential for use as a photocatalytic filter to decolorization of wastewater and thus, requires further investigation.

Keywords: titanium oxide nanoparticles, polyprophylene, melt-electrospinning

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