Somayeh Khanjani

Abstracts

7 Application of XRF and Other Principal Component Analysis for Counterfeited Gold Coin Characterization in Forensic Science

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Hamideh Abolghasemi

Abstract:

At world market can be currently encountered a wide range of gemological objects that are incorrectly declared, treated, or it concerns completely different materials that try to copy precious objects more or less successfully. Counterfeiting of precious commodities is a problem faced by governments in most countries. Police have seized many counterfeit coins that looked like the real coins and because the feeling to the touch and the weight were very similar to those of real coins. Most people were fooled and believed that the counterfeit coins were real ones. These counterfeit coins may have been made by big criminal organizations. To elucidate the manufacturing process, not only the quantitative analysis of the coins but also the comparison of their morphological characteristics was necessary. Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of coins. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique and the other analytical techniques for example SEM/EDX/WDX, FT-IR/ATR and Raman Spectroscopy. Using four elements (Cu, Ag, Au and Zn) and obtaining XRF for several samples, they could be discriminated. XRF technique and SEM/EDX/WDX are used for study of chemical composition. XRF analyzers provide a fast, accurate, nondestructive method to test the purity and chemistry of all precious metals. XRF is a very promising technique for rapid and non destructive counterfeit coins identification in forensic science.

Keywords: Forensic, X-Ray fluorescence, FT-IR, counterfeit coins

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6 Detection of Latent Fingerprints Recovered from Arson Simulation by a Novel Fluorescent Method

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili, Afshin Khara

Abstract:

Fingerprints are area source of ubiquitous evidence and consequential for establishing identity. The detection and subsequent development of fingerprints are thus inevitable in criminal investigations. This becomes a difficult task in the case of certain extreme conditions like fire. A fire scene may be accidental or arson. The evidence subjected to fire is generally overlooked as there is a misconception that they are damaged. There are several scientific approaches to determine whether the fire was deliberate or not. In such as scenario, fingerprints may be most critical to link the perpetrator to the crime. The reason for this may be the destructive nature of fire. Fingerprints subjected to fire are exposed to high temperatures, soot deposition, electromagnetic radiation, and subsequent water force. It is believed that these phenomena damage the fingerprint. A novel fluorescent and a pre existing small particle reagent were investigated for the same. Zinc carbonates based fluorescent small particle reagent was capable of developing latent fingerprints exposed to a maximum temperature of 800 ̊C. Fluorescent SPR may prove very useful in such cases. Fluorescent SPR reagent based on zinc carbonate is a potential method for developing fingerprints from arson sites. The method is cost effective and non hazardous. This formulation is suitable for developing fingerprints exposed to fire/ arson.

Keywords: Fingerprint, small particle reagent (SPR), arson, novel fluorescent

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5 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

Abstract:

Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: poisoning, aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, phosphine gas

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4 The Application of Insects in Forensic Investigations

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

Abstract:

Forensic entomology is the science of study and analysis of insects evidences to aid in criminal investigation. Being aware of the distribution, biology, ecology and behavior of insects, which are founded at crime scene can provide information about when, where and how the crime has been committed. It has many application in criminal investigations. Its main use is estimation of the minimum time after death in suspicious death. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in criminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. Because insects attack to the decomposing corpse and spawning on it from the initial stages. Forensic scientists can estimate the postmortem index by studying the insects population and the developing larval stages.In addition, toxicological and molecular studies of these insects can reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim. It also be used to detect drugs and poisons, and determination of incident location. Gathering robust entomological evidences is made possible for experts by recent Techniques. They can provide vital information about death, corpse movement or burial, submersion interval, time of decapitation, identification of specific sites of trauma, post-mortem artefacts on the body, use of drugs, linking a suspect to the scene of a crime, sexual molestations and the identification of suspects.

Keywords: Insects, Forensic Entomology, larvae, post mortem interval

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3 Application of Biosensors in Forensic Analysis

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

Abstract:

Biosensors in forensic analysis are ideal biological tools that can be used for rapid and sensitive initial screening and testing to detect of suspicious components like biological and chemical agent in crime scenes. The wide use of different biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, microorganisms, antibodies and enzymes makes it possible. These biosensors have great advantages such as rapidity, little sample manipulation and high sensitivity, also Because of their stability, specificity and low cost they have become a very important tool to Forensic analysis and detection of crime. In crime scenes different substances such as rape samples, Semen, saliva fingerprints and blood samples, act as a detecting elements for biosensors. On the other hand, successful fluid recovery via biosensor has the propensity to yield a highly valuable source of genetic material, which is important in finding the suspect. Although current biological fluid testing techniques are impaired for identification of body fluids. But these methods have disadvantages. For example if they are to be used simultaneously, Often give false positive result. These limitations can negatively result the output of a case through missed or misinterpreted evidence. The use of biosensor enable criminal researchers the highly sensitive and non-destructive detection of biological fluid through interaction with several fluid-endogenous and other biological and chemical contamination at the crime scene. For this reason, using of the biosensors for detecting the biological fluid found at the crime scenes which play an important role in identifying the suspect and solving the criminal.

Keywords: Biosensors, Forensic Analysis, Crime Detection, biological fluid

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2 Identification of Body Fluid at the Crime Scene by DNA Methylation Markers for Use in Forensic Science

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili, Mahasti Modarresi

Abstract:

Identifying the source tissue of biological material found at crime scenes can be very informative in a number of cases. Despite their usefulness, current visual, catalytic, enzymatic, and immunologic tests for presumptive and confirmatory tissue identification are applicable only to a subset of samples, might suffer limitations such as low specificity, lack of sensitivity, and are substantially impacted by environmental insults. In addition their results are operator-dependent. Recently the possibility of discriminating body fluids using mRNA expression differences in tissues has been described but lack of long term stability of that Molecule and the need to normalize samples for each individual are limiting factors. The use of DNA should solve these issues because of its long term stability and specificity to each body fluid. Cells in the human body have a unique epigenome, which includes differences in DNA methylation in the promoter of genes. DNA methylation, which occurs at the 5′-position of the cytosine in CpG dinucleotides, has great potential for forensic identification of body fluids, because tissue-specific patterns of DNA methylation have been demonstrated, and DNA is less prone to degradation than proteins or RNA. Previous studies have reported several body fluid-specific DNA methylation markers.The presence or absence of a methyl group on the 5’ carbon of the cytosine pyridine ring in CpG dinucleotide regions called ‘CpG islands’ dictates whether the gene is expressed or silenced in the particular body fluid. Were described methylation patterns at tissue specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) to be stable and specific, making them excellent markers for tissue identification. The results demonstrate that methylation-based tissue identification is more than a proof-of-concept. The methodology holds promise as another viable forensic DNA analysis tool for characterization of biological materials.

Keywords: Forensic Science, DNA Methylation, epigenome, tDMRs

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1 Forensic Applications of Quantum Dots

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit intrinsic optical and electrical properties that are size dependent due to the quantum confinement effect. Quantum confinement is brought about by the fact that in bulk semiconductor material the electronic structure consists of continuous bands, and that as the size of the semiconductor material decreases its radius becomes less than the Bohr exciton radius (the distance between the electron and electron-hole) and discrete energy levels result. As a result QDs have a broad absorption range and a narrow emission which correlates to the band gap energy (E), and hence QD size. QDs can thus be tuned to give the desired wavelength of fluorescence emission.Due to their unique properties, QDs have attracted considerable attention in different scientific areas. Also, they have been considered for forensic applications in recent years. The ability of QDs to fluoresce up to 20 times brighter than available fluorescent dyes makes them an attractive nanomaterial for enhancing the visualization of latent fingermarks, or poorly developed fingermarks. Furthermore, the potential applications of QDs in the detection of nitroaromatic explosives, such as TNT, based on directive fluorescence quenching of QDs, electron transfer quenching process or fluorescence resonance energy transfer have been paid to attention. DNA analysis is associated tightly with forensic applications in molecular diagnostics. The amount of DNA acquired at a criminal site is inherently limited. This limited amount of human DNA has to be quantified accurately after the process of DNA extraction. Accordingly, highly sensitive detection of human genomic DNA is an essential issue for forensic study. QDs have also a variety of advantages as an emission probe in forensic DNA quantification.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Forensic Science, DNA typing, explosive sensor, fingermark analysis

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