Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan


2 Near-Infrared Optogenetic Manipulation of a Channelrhodopsin via Upconverting Nanoparticles

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yit-Tsong Chen, Kanchan Yadav, Ai-Chuan Chou, Hua-De Gao, Hsien-Ming Lee, Chien-Yuan Pan


Optogenetics is an innovative technology now widely adopted by researchers in different fields of the biological sciences. However, due to the weak tissue penetration capability of the short wavelengths used to activate light-sensitive proteins, an invasive light guide has been used in animal studies for photoexcitation of target tissues. Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which transform near-infrared (NIR) light to short-wavelength emissions, can help address this issue. To improve optogenetic performance, we enhance the target selectivity for optogenetic controls by specifically conjugating the UCNPs with light-sensitive proteins at a molecular level, which shortens the distance as well as enhances the efficiency of energy transfer. We tagged V5 and Lumio epitopes to the extracellular N-terminal of channelrhodopsin-2 with an mCherry conjugated at the intracellular C-terminal (VL-ChR2m) and then bound NeutrAvidin-functionalized UCNPs (NAv-UCNPs) to the VL-ChR2m via a biotinylated antibody against V5 (bV5-Ab). We observed an apparent energy transfer from the excited UCNP (donor) to the bound VL-ChR2m (receptor) by measuring emission-intensity changes at the donor-receptor complex. The successful patch-clamp electrophysiological test and an intracellular Ca2+ elevation observed in the designed UCNP-ChR2 system under optogenetic manipulation confirmed the practical employment of UCNP-assisted NIR-optogenetic functionality. This work represents a significant step toward improving therapeutic optogenetics.

Keywords: Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin-2, near infrared, upconverting nanoparticles

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1 High Photosensitivity and Broad Spectral Response of Multi-Layered Germanium Sulfide Transistors

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yi-Ying Lu, Chia-Jung Kuo, Srinivasa Reddy Tamalampudi, Raman Sankar, Fang Cheng Chou, Yit-Tsong Chen


In this paper, we report the optoelectronic properties of multi-layered GeS nanosheets (~28 nm thick)-based field-effect transistors (called GeS-FETs). The multi-layered GeS-FETs exhibit remarkably high photoresponsivity of Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 under illumination of 1.5 µW/cm2 at  = 633 nm, Vg = 0 V, and Vds = 10 V. The obtained Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 is excellent as compared with a GeS nanoribbon-based and the other family members of group IV-VI-based photodetectors in the two-dimensional (2D) realm, such as GeSe and SnS2. The gate-dependent photoresponsivity of GeS-FETs was further measured to be able to reach Rλ ~ 655 AW-1 operated at Vg = -80 V. Moreover, the multi-layered GeS photodetector holds high external quantum efficiency (EQE ~ 4.0 × 104 %) and specific detectivity (D* ~ 2.35 × 1013 Jones). The measured D* is comparable to those of the advanced commercial Si- and InGaAs-based photodiodes. The GeS photodetector also shows an excellent long-term photoswitching stability with a response time of ~7 ms over a long period of operation (>1 h). These extraordinary properties of high photocurrent generation, broad spectral range, fast response, and long-term stability make the GeS-FET photodetector a highly qualified candidate for future optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: Photodetector, germanium sulfide, photoresponsivity, external quantum efficiency, specific detectivity

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